, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 862–872 | Cite as

Genetically Engineered Fd Viruses for Site Specific Material Binding

  • Nuriye KorkmazEmail author
  • Taner Arslan


Filamentous bacteriophages are viruses infecting only bacteria. In this study, filamentous fd viruses were genetically engineered to display specific gold- (V5) and platinum-binding (p7A) peptides on the head part (P9 minor coat protein). Gold-binding properties of recombinant p9V5, p9P7A, and wild-type fd viruses were investigated by Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and UV-Vis spectroscopy analyses. Displaying only 5 copies of V5 peptides on head part of viruses resulted in site-specific Au-binding. Surprisingly, p9p7A viruses, as well, showed enhanced gold-binding properties with respect to wild-type fd viruses. Filamentous fd viruses are good candidates of genetically programmable biotemplates for mineralization and metallization studies.


Bottom-up manufacturing Genetic engineering Biotemplating Filamentous bacteriophages Gold Metallization 





Atomic force microscopy






Aspartic acid


Electron beam lithography


Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy


Focused ion beam lithography


Forward primer






4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid












Specific platinum-binding peptide TLHVSSY


Quartz crystal microbalance


Reverse Primer




Scanning electron microscopy




Tobacco mosaic virus




Virus-like particle


Specific gold-binding peptide VSGSSPDS




Compliance with Ethical Statements

Conflict of Interest


Ethical Approval


Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


This work was supported by Korea Institute of Science and Technology-Europe basic research program (11807 and 11906).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biosensor GroupKorea Institute of Science and Technology Europe Forschungsgesellschaft mbHSaarbrückenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Oncology-Pathology, Cancer Proteomics Science for Life LaboratoryKarolinska InstitutetSolnaSweden

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