, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 941–943 | Cite as

Fecal Transplantation Against Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection

  • Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
  • Allison Wren
  • Sayar R. Abdulkhakov
  • Albert A. Rizvanov


Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming Gram-positive intestinal inhabitant of many asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. In the past, it was thought to have a commensal relationship with us but recent research has cast doubt on this. C. difficile infection (CDI) is a major public health concern and is associated with a decrease in fecal microbial diversity. In addition, the disrupted gastroduodenal microbial ecosystem by first-line antibiotic therapy is a predisposing factor for bacterial overgrowth by C. difficile. Given its high prevalence and the increasing incidence of virulent C. difficile isolates worldwide, with concomitant increased mortality and morbidity, new interventions including fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) are urgently needed. The main rationale for FMT is to rebalance the gut microbiota. Undoubtedly, FMT is safe and efficacious enough to recommend it to decision-makers in order to institute routine application in clinical practices.


Clostridium difficile Fecal microbiota transplantation Improved management 


Funding Information

This study was supported by the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University. Albert A. Rizvanov was funded by state assignment 20.5175.2017/6.7 of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of Medical SciencesTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Kazan Federal UniversityKazanRussia

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