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Thermodynamic and economic evaluation of a novel configuration for sustainable production of power and freshwater based on biomass gasification

  • M. J. Rahimi
  • M. H. HamediEmail author
  • M. Amidpour
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper presents a novel thermal cycle for renewable production of power and freshwater with the use of biomass gasification technology. For this purpose, a realistic simulation program is developed (in C# programming language) to predict the composition of synthesis gas produced in the gasifier. Using the proposed system, both power and water demand of a small city with 3000 people can be met without any fossil fuel consumption. So, the proposed system can help in reaching a sustainable future. This novel system is then compared with two conventional systems for the production of power and water. The first one is a conventional natural gas-based system without any heat integration and the second one is a natural gas-based system with heat integration. It is concluded that the novel proposed system will result in 5,267,800 m3 of natural gas saving per annum in comparison to the conventional system without heat integration. On the other hand, 4,211,300 m3 of natural gas per year is saved in comparison to the conventional system with heat integration. Economic results show that the levelized cost of produced power and water for the novel system are 0.11 $/kWh and 1.25 $/m3 respectively, and the period of return is 13.6. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to specify the impact of various thermodynamic and economic variables of the system on the final outputs. This research makes it possible to compare this renewable combined system with other conventional systems from thermodynamic and economic points of view.

Keywords

Biomass gasification Combined production Economic analysis C# programming 

List of symbols

AHRSG

Heat recovery steam generator area (m2)

Ahx

Heat exchanger area (m2)

avai

Availability

b

Nominal interest rate (%)

CAP

Total capital cost (M$)

Capital_d

The capital cost of the desalination system (M$)

CB

Equipment cost with capacity QB (base capacity)

CE

Equipment cost with capacity Q

Cp

Specific heat capacity at constant pressure (kJ/kg)

E

Energy (kJ)

FA

Filter area (m2)

GOR

Gain output ratio (kg desalinated water produced/kg steam condensed)

\( G_{T,i}^{0} \)

Gibbs free energy (kJ/kmol)

H

Enthalpy (kJ)

h

Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg)

HP

High pressure

HR

Heat rate (MJ/kWh)

\( \bar{h} \)

Molar enthalpy (kJ/kmol)

\( h_{f}^{0} \)

Enthalpy of formation (kJ/kmol)

i

Mole of sulfide dioxide (per mole of biomass)

int

Interest rate

j

Mole of carbon monoxide (per mole of biomass)

Kratio

The ratio of the specific heat capacity at constant pressure to the specific heat capacity at constant volume

K

Equilibrium constant

M

Flow rate (in desalination system analysis only) (kg/s)

Ma

Air molecular weight (kg/kmol)

Mf

Fuel molecular weight (kg/kmol)

Mr

Brine recycle flow rate (kg/s)

Qin

Heat input to the gasifying process (preheating)

Qout

Heat output of the gasifying process (heat loss)

\( \dot{Q} \)

The time rate of heat (kJ/s)

react

Reaction reactants

Ru

Universal constant of ideal gases

s

Mole of carbon dioxide (per mole of biomass)

T

Temperature (°C)

t

Mole of hydrogen (per mole of biomass)

u

Mole of methane (per mole of biomass)

V

Desalinated water production per day (m3/day)

v

The mole of water (per mole of biomass)

w

Water molar fraction in biomass

\( \dot{W} \)

The time rate of work (kJ/s)

x

Ambient air molar composition

X

Salt concentration

yratio

Specific ratio of sensible heat to latent heat

y

Mole of nitrogen (per mole of biomass)

z

Mole of oxygen (per mole of biomass)

Subscripts

a

Air

av

Average

b

Brine

base

Base case

cw

Cooling water

d

Distillate

db

Dry base

f

Feed

f

Fuel

i

Stage of the desalination system

m

H atoms substitution formula

p

Product

p

O atoms substitution formula

pg

Synthesis gas

q

N atoms substitution formula

r

S atoms substitution formula

Greek

ηst

Turbine isentropic efficiency (%)

ηsc

Compressor isentropic efficiency (%)

ηsp

Pump isentropic efficiency (%)

ηmt

Turbine mechanical efficiency (%)

ηmc

Compressor mechanical efficiency (%)

ηmp

Pump mechanical efficiency (%)

\( \lambda \)

Latent heat (kJ/kg)

ΔT

The temperature drop per stage (°C)

Abbreviations

ACS

Annualized cost of system

AD

Adsorption desalination

CC

Combined cycle

Comp

Compressor

CGE

Cold gas efficiency

CRF

Capital recovery factor

FOM

Fixed operating and maintenance cost ($/kW-year)

GHG

Green house gases

HHV

High heating value

HRSG

Heat recovery steam generator

ICE

Internal combustion engine

LHV

Lower heating value (kJ/kg)

LP

Low pressure

MC

Moisture content of biomass (%)

MD

Membrane distillation

MED

Multiple effect distillation

MSF

Multiple stage flash (distillation)

ORC

Organic rankin cycle

PSP

Power sale price (cent/kWh)

RMS

Root mean square error

RO

Reverse osmosis

ST

Steam turbine

Tap

Approach temperature (°C)

TBT

Top brine temperature (°C)

Tpp

Pinch temperature (°C)

TTD

Terminal temperature difference (°C)

TVC

Thermal vapor compression

WSP

Water sale price ($/m3)

Notes

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Copyright information

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical Engineering-Energy Conversion DivisionK.N. Toosi University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Mechanical Engineering-Energy Systems DivisionK.N. Toosi University of TechnologyTehranIran

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