Performance analysis of micro-grid designs with local PMSG wind turbines

  • Khadija TaziEmail author
  • Mohamed Fouad Abbou
  • Farid Abdi
Original Paper


Micro-grids are small-scaled power grids, with local clean energy generation and intelligent management units. Micro-grids equipped with PV panels, wind turbines and batteries are known as hybrid power systems. Since these systems are a promising solution to build the future smart city, different designs were proposed and implemented. The present study compares two micro-grid-connected PMSG designs, with PV panels and batteries, based on system performance and power quality. In the first design, the wind turbine is connected to the common DC bus through a rectifier, while in the second configuration, it is connected to the 3-phase AC circuit via a transformer. The comparison is carried-out under different weather and system conditions. According to simulation results, the first design is less affected by voltage harmonics and has a better power quality, while the second design is robust to inverter or transformer failures and supports more loads.


Power quality Hybrid power system Inverter Permanent magnet synchronous generator Micro-grid Power factor Total harmonic distortion 



  1. 1.
    Office Nationale d’Electricité [National Electricity Office]: Site web officiel de l’ONEE—Branche Electricité [National Electricity and Water Official Website—Electricity Division]. [Online] (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mishra, S., Gupta, M., Garg, A., Goel, R., Mishra, V.K.: Modeling and simulation of Solar photo-voltaic and PMSG Based Wind Hybrid System. In: 2014 IEEE Students’ Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science (SCEECS), pp. 1–6 (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Olivares, D., et al.: Trends in micro-grid control. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid. 5(4), 1905–1919 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sumathi, S., Ashok Kumar, L., Surekha, P.: Hybrid power system. Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion System: An Introduction to Theory, Modeling with MATLAB/Simulink, and the Role of Soft Computing Techniques, vol. 6, sec. 6.1, pp. 391–392. Springer, Cham (2015)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nguyen, M.Y., Yoon, Y.T.: A comparison of micro-grid topologies considering both market operations and reliability. Electr. Power Compon. Syst. 42, 585–594 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pavan Kumar, Y.V., Bhimasingu. R.: Performance analysis of green micro-grid architectures by comparing power quality indices. In: 18th National Power System Conference in Guwahati, India (2014)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fregosi, D., et al.: A comparative study of DC and AC micro-grids in commercial buildings across different climates and operating profiles. In: IEEE First International Conference on DC Micro-grids Atlanta, Georgia (2015)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Werth, A., Kitamura, N., Matsumoto, I., Tanaka, K.: Evaluation of centralized and distributed micro-grid topologies and comparison to open energy systems (OES). In: IEEE 15th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), Rome, Italy (2015)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Etxeberria, A., Vechiu, I., Camblong, H., Vinassa, J.-M.: Comparison of three topologies and controls of a hybrid energy storage system for micro-grids. Energy Convers. Manag. 54(1), 113–121 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    El Khashab, H., Al Ghamedi, M.: Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia. J. Electr. Syst. Inf. Technol. 2, 111–119 (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khatri, N., Sharma, J., Joshi, N.: Comparison of performance and cost of wind and solar hybrid system using HOMER software. Int. J. Eng. Res. 3(3), 666–670 (2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tazi, K., Abbou, F.M., Chaka, A.B., Abdi, F.: Modeling and simulation of a residential micro-grid supplied with PV/batteries in connected/disconnected modes—case of Morocco. J. Renew. Sustain. Energy 9, 4 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Errami, Y., Ouassaid, M., Maaroufi, M.: Control of a PMSG based wind energy generation system for power maximization and grid fault conditions. Energy Procedia. 42, 220–229 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Karthick, R., Manoharan, S., Rajkumar, S.: Grid interface of a PMSG based wind energy conversion system with power quality improvement features. J. Theor. Appl. Inform. Tech. 68(2), 307–314 (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gowind Turbinesham, D., Royrichard, T.: Hybrid distributed power generation system using PV and wind energy. In: National Conference on Potential Research Avenues and Future Opportunities in Electrical and Instrumentation Engineering (2014)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Duong, M.Q., et al.: Comparison of power quality in different grid-integrated wind turbines. In: 2014 IEEE 16th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, pp. 669–673. (2014)
  17. 17.
    Babazadehrokni, H.: Power fluctuations smoothing and regulations in wind turbine generator systems. Electronic Theses and Dissertations, p. 42 (2013)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Veena, V., Priya, P.S.: Modelling and control of PMSG for variable speed wind energy conversion system using PID controller. Int. Adv. Res. J. Sci. Eng. Technol. 3(3), 222–226 (2016)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fateh, L., et al.: Modeling and control of a permanent magnet synchronous generator dedicated to standalone wind energy conversion system. Front. Energy 10(2), 155–163 (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gajewski, P.: Analysis of a wind energy converter system with PMSG generator. Czasopismo Techniczne Elektrotechnika Zeszyt 1-E(8), 219–228 (2015)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baharudin, N.H., Mansur, T.M.N.T., Hamid, F.A.: Topologies of DC–DC converter in solar PV applications. Indones. J. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci. 8(2), 368–374 (2017). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kolsi, S., Samet, H., Amar, M.: Design analysis of DC–DC converters connected to a photovoltaic generator and controlled by MPPT for optimal energy transfer throughout a clear day. J. Power Energy Eng. 2, 27–34 (2014). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Soetedjo, A., Lomi, A. Mulayanto, W.P.: Modeling of wind energy system with MPPT control. In: International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics (2011)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Labidi, Z.R., Mami, A.: Study and simulation of a hybrid photovoltaic-wind generator connected to a DC load. In: 16th International Conference on Sciences and Techniques of Automatic Control and Computer Engineering (STA) (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nguyen, M.Y., Yoon, Y.T.: A comparison of micro-grid topologies considering both market operations and reliability. Electr. Power Compon. Syst. 42, 585–594 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Abu Dhabi Distribution Company, Al Ain Distribution Company, Abu Dhabi Supply Company for Remote Areas (RASCO). Limits for Harmonics in the Electricity Supply System. (2005)
  27. 27.
    Farooq, H., Zhou, C., Farrag, M.E.: Analyzing the harmonic distortion in a distribution system caused by the non-linear residential loads. Int. J. Smart Grid Clean Energy 2(1), 46–51 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Abbas, W., Saqib, M.A.: Effect of nonlinear load distributions on total harmonic distortion in a power system. In: International Conference on Electrical Engineering (2007)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Abadi, I., Penangsang, O., Praseto, R.L.: A study of harmonics in PV-wind turbine micro-grid system. Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res. 10(9), 23621–23629 (2015)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van der Klauw, T.: Decentralized energy management with profile steering—resource allocation problems in energy management. Electronic Theses and Dissertations (2017)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Suvire, G.O., Mercado, P.E.: Voltage fluctuations caused by the operation of wind farm in a weak power system. In: Hydrogen and Sustainable Energy Sources Conference (HYFUSEN), Argentina. (2009)
  32. 32.
    Rashidian, M., Ganji, B., Rahimi, M.: Mitigation of power fluctuation in variable-speed wind turbine with DFIG. In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2017 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC/I&CPS Europe), Italy. (2017)
  33. 33.
    Mishra, S., Gupta, M., Garg, A., Goel, A., Mishra, V.K.: modeling and simulation of solar photo-voltaic and PMSG based wind hybrid system. In: IEEE Students Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science (2014)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bouharchouche, A., Berkouk, E.M., Ghennam, T.: Control and energy management of a grid connected hybrid energy system PV-wind with battery energy storage for residential applications. In: Eighth International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehic1es and Renewable Energies (EVER) (2013)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Erduman, A., Kılıçkıran, H.C., Kekezoglu, B., Durusu, A., Tanrıöven, M.: Wind turbine effects on power system voltage fluctuation. In: 3th International Conference on Electric Power and Energy Conversion Systems, Istanbul. (2013)
  36. 36.
    Tamalouzt, S. et al.:Wind turbine-DFIG/photovoltaic/fuel cell hybrid power sources system associated with hydrogen storage energy for micro-grid applications. In: 3rd International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC’15), Marrakech. (2015)
  37. 37.
    Alzahrani, A., Shamsi, P., Ferdowsi, M., Dagli, C.: Modeling and simulation of micro-grid. Procedia Comput. Sci. (2017)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rijcke, S., Driesen, J., Meyers, J.: Power smoothing in large wind farms using optimal control of rotating kinetic energy reserves. Wind Energy (2014). Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jabir, M., Illias, H.A., Raza, S., Mokhlis, H.: Intermittent smoothing approaches for wind power output: a review. Energies 10, 1572 (2017). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sheikh, M.R.I., Muyeen, S.M., Takahashi, R., Murata, T., Tamura, J.: Minimization of fluctuations of output power and terminal voltage of wind generator by using STATCOM/SMES. In: IEEE Bucharest PowerTech, Romania, pp. 1–6. (2009)
  41. 41.
    Addisu, A., George, L., Courbin, P., Sciandra, V.: Smoothing of renewable energy generation using Gaussian-based method with power constraints. In: 9th International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Building (SEB-17), Greece, Energy Procedia 134(2017), 171–180. (2017)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Signals, Systems and Components Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and TechniquesSidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah UniversityFezMorocco
  2. 2.School of Science and EngineeringAl Akhawayn UniversityIfraneMorocco

Personalised recommendations