Energy Systems

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 355–384 | Cite as

Power management and control strategies for off-grid hybrid power systems with renewable energies and storage

  • Belkacem BelabbasEmail author
  • Tayeb Allaoui
  • Mohamed Tadjine
  • Mouloud Denai
Original Paper


This paper presents a simulation study of standalone hybrid Distributed Generation Systems (DGS) with Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). The DGS consists of Photovoltaic (PV) panels as Renewable Power Source (RPS), a Diesel Generator (DG) for power buck-up and a BESS to accommodate the surplus of energy, which may be employed in times of poor PV generation. While off-grid DGS represent an efficient and cost-effective energy supply solution particularly to rural and remote areas, fluctuations in voltage and frequency due to load variations, weather conditions (temperature, irradiation) and transmission line short-circuits are major challenges. The paper suggests a hierarchical Power Management (PM) and controller structure to improve the reliability and efficiency of the hybrid DGS. The first layer of the overall control scheme includes a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) to adjust the voltage and frequency at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) and a Clamping Bridge Circuit (CBC) which regulates the DC bus voltage. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller based on FLC is designed to extract the optimum power from the PV. The second control layer coordinates among PV, DG and BESS to ensure reliable and efficient power supply to the load. MATLAB Simulink is used to implement the overall model of the off-grid DGS and to test the performance of the proposed control scheme which is evaluated in a series of simulations scenarios. The results demonstrated the good performance of the proposed control scheme and effective coordination between the DGS for all the simulation scenarios considered.


Standalone Distributed generation Photovoltaic Diesel generator Energy storage Fuzzy logic control 


\(V_{{ DG}\_{ abc}} \)

Voltage of the DG

\(I_{{ DG}\_{ abc}} \)

Current of the DG

\(V_{{ Load}\_{ abc}} \)

Voltage of the load

\(I_{{ Load}\_{ abc}} \)

Current of the load

\(V_{f\_{ abc}} \)

Voltages of inverter

\(I_{f\_{ abc}} \)

Filtered currents of inverter

\(P_e \)

Power balance between generation and consumption

\(P_{{ PV}} \)

Photovoltaic system output power

\(P_{{ batt}} \)

Battery power

\(P_{{ Load}} \)

Load power

\(P_{{ DG}} \)

Diesel generator power

\(V_{{ batt}} \)

Voltage of the battery

\(I_{{ batt}} \)

Current of the battery

\(I_{{ batt}}^*\)

Reference current of the battery

\(L_1 \)

Inductor of DC-DC boost converter

\(L_2 \)

Inductor of bidirectional DC-DC converter.

\(C_B \)

Capacitor of DC-DC boost converter

\(L_f \)

Inductive filter


Capacitor of inverter

\(V_{dc} \)

DC-link voltage


Reference of DC-link voltage

\(I_{dc} \)

DC-link current

\(R_1 ,C_1 \)

Effests created by mass transport

\(R_2 ,C_2 \)

Effests created by the charge transfer


Conducting resistance

\(V_{OC} \)

Open-circuit voltage


Charge or discharge current

\(C_r \)

Rated capacity


Multiple or fraction of \(C_r\)




Active and reactive powers


References of active and reactive powers

\(V_{L\_d} ,V_{L\_q} \)

Direct and quadrature of PCC voltage

\(I_{L\_d} ,I_{L\_q} \)

Direct and quadrature of load current

\(\omega \)


\(\omega ^{*}\)

Reference of pulse


Maximum voltage


Reference of maximum voltage


Droop of active power coefficient


Droop of reactive power coefficient



This work has been supported by Electrical Engineering and L2GEGI laboratory at the Tiaret University, Algeria in collaboration with Polytechnic national school, Algiers, Algeria.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Belkacem Belabbas
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Tayeb Allaoui
    • 1
  • Mohamed Tadjine
    • 2
  • Mouloud Denai
    • 3
  1. 1.L2GEGI LaboratoryUniversity of TiaretTiaretAlgeria
  2. 2.LCP LaboratorySchool of Polytechnic NationalAlgiersAlgeria
  3. 3.School of Engineering and TechnologyUniversity of HertfordshireHatfieldUK

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