Energy Systems

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 489–515 | Cite as

Integration of distributed generation for assessment of distribution system reliability considering power loss, voltage stability and voltage deviation

  • Mukul DixitEmail author
  • Prasanta Kundu
  • Hitesh R. Jariwala
Original Paper


This paper presents a combined scheme for solving optimal distributed generation (DG) placement and reliability assessment problem of distribution network. This has been solved through meta-heuristic based novel Modified Gbest-guided artificial bee colony (MGABC) optimization algorithm for the purpose of power loss reduction, index of voltage stability (IVS) improvement and voltage level enhancement. In addition to that, it also identifies the optimal values of rate of failure and time of repair of various distribution lines for enhancement of distribution reliability. Therefore to achieve these proposed objectives, three multi-objective functions are formulated. First multi-objective function is formed by combining purchased active power cost from grid, power loss cost, DG installation cost, DG operation and maintenance (O&M) cost, reliability cost, IVS and total voltage deviation. Second objective function is reliability based cost function with the consideration of DG units and the third one is comprehensive multi-objective function associated with first and second objective functions for solving DG placement and reliability enhancement problem simultaneously. The proposed problem is demonstrated on 8-bus distribution system. Obtained numerical outcomes illustrate that, simultaneous solving DG placement problem and reliability enhancement problem leads to reduction of total operating cost, total voltage deviation, power loss and improvement in IVS significantly. Furthermore, the results obtained through MGABC optimization algorithm are compared to other intelligence technique for highlighting the capability and superiority of proposed methodology.


DG placement Distribution network reliability Modified Gbest-guided artificial bee colony algorithm Power loss Voltage deviation 



Average rate of failure


Number of customer at ith load point


Rate of failure of ith load point

\(FR_{i,min}\) and \(FR_i^0\)

Minimum and modified value of rate of failure at ith load point


Total number of distribution lines


Repair time of ith load point

\(RR_{i,min }\) and \(RR_i^0 \)

Minimum and modified value of repair time at ith load point


Number of distribution lines


Customer average load at ith bus


Cost of power loss


Purchase active power cost from grid


DG installation cost

\(DG_{O}\) & M

O & M cost of DG


Summation of IVS


Total voltage deviation

\(\alpha _{k}\) and \(\beta _{k}\)

Cost coefficients


Total number of buses

\(FR_{k}\) and \(RR_{k}\)

Rate of failure and time of repair for kth branch

\(FR_{eq}\) and \(RR_{eq}\)

Equivalent rate of failure and time of repair.


Yearly outage period after inclusion of DG units

\(FR_{s}\) and \(RR_{s}\)

Total rate of failure and repair time of a load point.

\(FR_{dg}\) and \(RR_{dg}\)

Rate of failure and time of repair of DG.

\(FR_{sdg}\) and OU\(_{sdg}\)

Rate of failure and time of outage for parallel arrangement of DG and a network.

\(FR_{sw}\) and \(RR_{sw}\)

Rate of failure and time of service restoration of manual switch.

\(P_{ij}\) and \(Q_{ij}\)

Active and reactive power flow between ith and jth bus

\(P_j^{DG} \)

Real power supplied by DG


Voltage at ith bus

\(P_j^F \)and \(Q_j^F \)

Active and reactive power flow beyond jth bus


Real power loss between ith and jth bus


Total number of buses

\(S_{DG}\) and \(S_{Load} \)

Total kVA rating of DG and a network


Nominal rated voltage 1 pu


Cost coefficient of power loss (0.06 US $/kW)

\(E_p \)

Electricity market price (49 US $/MWh)

\(P_{Load} \)

Total real power load of a network


Time period (8760 hours)

\(DG_{cap,i} \)

DG capacity

\(K_{DG}^i \)

Cost coefficient of DG installation (400000 US $/MW)

\( K_{DG}^{O \& M}\)

DG O&M cost coefficient (36 US $/MWh)


Real power supplied by DG

\(\varphi _{ij}\)

Random number between \(-1\) and 1


Distributed generation


Incentive offered by DG in per kW cost


Expected energy not supplied without DG


Expected energy not supplied with DG


Number of DGs


Index of voltage stability


Artificial bee colony


Gbest-guided artificial bee colony


Modified Gbest-guided artificial bee colony


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mukul Dixit
    • 1
    Email author
  • Prasanta Kundu
    • 1
  • Hitesh R. Jariwala
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringS. V. National Institute of TechnologySuratIndia

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