# Integration of distributed generation for assessment of distribution system reliability considering power loss, voltage stability and voltage deviation

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## Abstract

This paper presents a combined scheme for solving optimal distributed generation (DG) placement and reliability assessment problem of distribution network. This has been solved through meta-heuristic based novel Modified Gbest-guided artificial bee colony (MGABC) optimization algorithm for the purpose of power loss reduction, index of voltage stability (IVS) improvement and voltage level enhancement. In addition to that, it also identifies the optimal values of rate of failure and time of repair of various distribution lines for enhancement of distribution reliability. Therefore to achieve these proposed objectives, three multi-objective functions are formulated. First multi-objective function is formed by combining purchased active power cost from grid, power loss cost, DG installation cost, DG operation and maintenance (O&M) cost, reliability cost, IVS and total voltage deviation. Second objective function is reliability based cost function with the consideration of DG units and the third one is comprehensive multi-objective function associated with first and second objective functions for solving DG placement and reliability enhancement problem simultaneously. The proposed problem is demonstrated on 8-bus distribution system. Obtained numerical outcomes illustrate that, simultaneous solving DG placement problem and reliability enhancement problem leads to reduction of total operating cost, total voltage deviation, power loss and improvement in IVS significantly. Furthermore, the results obtained through MGABC optimization algorithm are compared to other intelligence technique for highlighting the capability and superiority of proposed methodology.

## Keywords

DG placement Distribution network reliability Modified Gbest-guided artificial bee colony algorithm Power loss Voltage deviation## Abbreviations

- \(FR_{sys,i}\)
Average rate of failure

- \(NC_{i}\)
Number of customer at

*i*th load point- \(FR_{i}\)
Rate of failure of

*i*th load point- \(FR_{i,min}\) and \(FR_i^0\)
Minimum and modified value of rate of failure at

*i*th load point*S*Total number of distribution lines

- \(RR_{i}\)
Repair time of

*i*th load point- \(RR_{i,min }\) and \(RR_i^0 \)
Minimum and modified value of repair time at

*i*th load point*NL*Number of distribution lines

- \(AL_{i}\)
Customer average load at

*i*th bus- \(C_{Loss}\)
Cost of power loss

- \(C_{p}\)
Purchase active power cost from grid

- \(DG_{instt}\)
DG installation cost

- \(DG_{O}\) &
*M* O & M cost of DG

*IVS*\(_{T}\)Summation of IVS

- \(V_{deviation}\)
Total voltage deviation

- \(\alpha _{k}\) and \(\beta _{k}\)
Cost coefficients

*n*Total number of buses

- \(FR_{k}\) and \(RR_{k}\)
Rate of failure and time of repair for

*k*th branch- \(FR_{eq}\) and \(RR_{eq}\)
Equivalent rate of failure and time of repair.

- O\(U_{eq}\)
Yearly outage period after inclusion of DG units

- \(FR_{s}\) and \(RR_{s}\)
Total rate of failure and repair time of a load point.

- \(FR_{dg}\) and \(RR_{dg}\)
Rate of failure and time of repair of DG.

- \(FR_{sdg}\) and
*OU*\(_{sdg}\) Rate of failure and time of outage for parallel arrangement of DG and a network.

- \(FR_{sw}\) and \(RR_{sw}\)
Rate of failure and time of service restoration of manual switch.

- \(P_{ij}\) and \(Q_{ij}\)
Active and reactive power flow between

*i*th and*j*th bus- \(P_j^{DG} \)
Real power supplied by DG

- \(V_{i}\)
Voltage at

*i*th bus- \(P_j^F \)and \(Q_j^F \)
Active and reactive power flow beyond

*j*th bus- \(P_{Loss}(i,j)\)
Real power loss between

*i*th and*j*th bus*n*Total number of buses

- \(S_{DG}\) and \(S_{Load} \)
Total kVA rating of DG and a network

- \(V_{rated}\)
Nominal rated voltage 1 pu

- \(K_{p}\)
Cost coefficient of power loss (0.06 US $/kW)

- \(E_p \)
Electricity market price (49 US $/MWh)

- \(P_{Load} \)
Total real power load of a network

*T*Time period (8760 hours)

- \(DG_{cap,i} \)
DG capacity

- \(K_{DG}^i \)
Cost coefficient of DG installation (400000 US $/MW)

- \( K_{DG}^{O \& M}\)
DG O&M cost coefficient (36 US $/MWh)

- \(P_{real,i}\)
Real power supplied by DG

- \(\varphi _{ij}\)
Random number between \(-1\) and 1

*DG*Distributed generation

*ADCOST*Incentive offered by DG in per kW cost

*EENSO*Expected energy not supplied without DG

*EENSD*Expected energy not supplied with DG

*NDG*Number of DGs

*IVS*Index of voltage stability

*ABC*Artificial bee colony

*GABC*Gbest-guided artificial bee colony

*MGABC*Modified Gbest-guided artificial bee colony

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