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Energy Systems

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 489–515 | Cite as

Integration of distributed generation for assessment of distribution system reliability considering power loss, voltage stability and voltage deviation

  • Mukul DixitEmail author
  • Prasanta Kundu
  • Hitesh R. Jariwala
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper presents a combined scheme for solving optimal distributed generation (DG) placement and reliability assessment problem of distribution network. This has been solved through meta-heuristic based novel Modified Gbest-guided artificial bee colony (MGABC) optimization algorithm for the purpose of power loss reduction, index of voltage stability (IVS) improvement and voltage level enhancement. In addition to that, it also identifies the optimal values of rate of failure and time of repair of various distribution lines for enhancement of distribution reliability. Therefore to achieve these proposed objectives, three multi-objective functions are formulated. First multi-objective function is formed by combining purchased active power cost from grid, power loss cost, DG installation cost, DG operation and maintenance (O&M) cost, reliability cost, IVS and total voltage deviation. Second objective function is reliability based cost function with the consideration of DG units and the third one is comprehensive multi-objective function associated with first and second objective functions for solving DG placement and reliability enhancement problem simultaneously. The proposed problem is demonstrated on 8-bus distribution system. Obtained numerical outcomes illustrate that, simultaneous solving DG placement problem and reliability enhancement problem leads to reduction of total operating cost, total voltage deviation, power loss and improvement in IVS significantly. Furthermore, the results obtained through MGABC optimization algorithm are compared to other intelligence technique for highlighting the capability and superiority of proposed methodology.

Keywords

DG placement Distribution network reliability Modified Gbest-guided artificial bee colony algorithm Power loss Voltage deviation 

Abbreviations

\(FR_{sys,i}\)

Average rate of failure

\(NC_{i}\)

Number of customer at ith load point

\(FR_{i}\)

Rate of failure of ith load point

\(FR_{i,min}\) and \(FR_i^0\)

Minimum and modified value of rate of failure at ith load point

S

Total number of distribution lines

\(RR_{i}\)

Repair time of ith load point

\(RR_{i,min }\) and \(RR_i^0 \)

Minimum and modified value of repair time at ith load point

NL

Number of distribution lines

\(AL_{i}\)

Customer average load at ith bus

\(C_{Loss}\)

Cost of power loss

\(C_{p}\)

Purchase active power cost from grid

\(DG_{instt}\)

DG installation cost

\(DG_{O}\) & M

O & M cost of DG

IVS\(_{T}\)

Summation of IVS

\(V_{deviation}\)

Total voltage deviation

\(\alpha _{k}\) and \(\beta _{k}\)

Cost coefficients

n

Total number of buses

\(FR_{k}\) and \(RR_{k}\)

Rate of failure and time of repair for kth branch

\(FR_{eq}\) and \(RR_{eq}\)

Equivalent rate of failure and time of repair.

O\(U_{eq}\)

Yearly outage period after inclusion of DG units

\(FR_{s}\) and \(RR_{s}\)

Total rate of failure and repair time of a load point.

\(FR_{dg}\) and \(RR_{dg}\)

Rate of failure and time of repair of DG.

\(FR_{sdg}\) and OU\(_{sdg}\)

Rate of failure and time of outage for parallel arrangement of DG and a network.

\(FR_{sw}\) and \(RR_{sw}\)

Rate of failure and time of service restoration of manual switch.

\(P_{ij}\) and \(Q_{ij}\)

Active and reactive power flow between ith and jth bus

\(P_j^{DG} \)

Real power supplied by DG

\(V_{i}\)

Voltage at ith bus

\(P_j^F \)and \(Q_j^F \)

Active and reactive power flow beyond jth bus

\(P_{Loss}(i,j)\)

Real power loss between ith and jth bus

n

Total number of buses

\(S_{DG}\) and \(S_{Load} \)

Total kVA rating of DG and a network

\(V_{rated}\)

Nominal rated voltage 1 pu

\(K_{p}\)

Cost coefficient of power loss (0.06 US $/kW)

\(E_p \)

Electricity market price (49 US $/MWh)

\(P_{Load} \)

Total real power load of a network

T

Time period (8760 hours)

\(DG_{cap,i} \)

DG capacity

\(K_{DG}^i \)

Cost coefficient of DG installation (400000 US $/MW)

\( K_{DG}^{O \& M}\)

DG O&M cost coefficient (36 US $/MWh)

\(P_{real,i}\)

Real power supplied by DG

\(\varphi _{ij}\)

Random number between \(-1\) and 1

DG

Distributed generation

ADCOST

Incentive offered by DG in per kW cost

EENSO

Expected energy not supplied without DG

EENSD

Expected energy not supplied with DG

NDG

Number of DGs

IVS

Index of voltage stability

ABC

Artificial bee colony

GABC

Gbest-guided artificial bee colony

MGABC

Modified Gbest-guided artificial bee colony

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mukul Dixit
    • 1
    Email author
  • Prasanta Kundu
    • 1
  • Hitesh R. Jariwala
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringS. V. National Institute of TechnologySuratIndia

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