Microwave Processing of Banded Magnetite Quartzite Ore for Iron Recovery

  • Veeranjaneyulu Rayapudi
  • Nikhil DhawanEmail author
Technical Paper


The effective utilization of low-grade banded iron ores is inevitable to meet India Steel Vision 2030 of producing 300 MT steel. In this study, banded magnetite quartzite iron ore (Fe ~ 41%) is physically beneficiated and microwave-treated followed by low-intensity magnetic separation. The appearance of massive random cracks during microwave treatment assisted the release of iron values from the matrix. Magnetite phase is strongly receptive to microwave exposure, thereby enhancing the separation characteristics. The Box–Behnken statistical design yielded an optimum concentrate with 60.1% Fe, 99% Fe recovery and 71% yield without any chemical additive. The single-step microwave exposure and low-intensity magnetic separation can be employed for the beneficiation of other low-grade iron ores.


Low-grade iron ore BMQ Microwave exposure Time Magnetic separation 



The authors would like to thank and acknowledge funding agency Science Engineering Research Board (SERB) for providing the Early Career Research (ECR) grant. The authors would like to thank the Jindal Group for providing the samples.


  1. 1.
    Rayapudi V, Agrawal S, and Dhawan N, Miner Metall Explor (2018). Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kingman S W, and Roason N A, J Micro and Electro Energy 35 (2000) 144.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pickles C A, Miner Eng 22 (2009) 1112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Walkiewicz J W, Clark A E, and McGill S L, IEEE Trans Ind Appl 27 (1991) 239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Amini A, Ohno K I, Maeda T, and Kunitomo K, Sci Rep 8 (2018) 15023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheng J, Roy R, and Agrawal D, Mater Res Innov 5 (2002) 170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hayashi M, Yokoyama Y, and Nagata K, J Micro Power Electro Energy 44 (2010) 198.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Standish N, Worner H K, and Obuchowski D Y, Powder Technol 66 (1991) 225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yoshikawa N, Cao Z, Louzguin D, Xie G, and Taniguchi S, J Mater Res 24 (2009) 1741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kato T, Kobayashi K, Yoshikawa N, and Taniguchi S, J Micro Power Electro Energy 45 (2011) 79.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tripathy A, Bagchi S, Rao D S, Nayak B K, Rout P K, and Biswal S K, Metall Res Technol 115 (2018) 302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Singh V, Venugopal R, Tripathy S K, and Saxena K, Miner Metall Process 34 (2017) 65.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cheng B, Cai, Z, Xu R, Zhang Z L, and Chi X W, J Rare Earths 36 (2018) 215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hartlieb P, Kuchar F, Moser P, Kargl H, and Restner U, Miner Eng 118 (2017) 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Montgomery D C, Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers, 6th Edn, Wiley, New York (2016) p 341.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barani K, Koleini S J, and Rezaei B, Separ Purif Technol 76 (2011) 331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tavares L M, and King R P, KONA Powder Part J17 (1999) 163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (IIT)-RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

Personalised recommendations