Thermodynamic Modelling for Design of Synthetic Slag for Inclusion Removal

  • Madan MohanasundaramEmail author
  • Gour Gopal Roy
  • Swatantra Prakash
Technical Paper


Enhancement in steel cleanliness is essential for high-performance steels for their high-end applications in structural, automotive, defence and strategic sectors. The non-metallic inclusions play a decisive role in clean steelmaking. The inclusions have to be necessarily minimized or modified by controlling their morphology, composition and size distribution to reduce the detrimental effect of inclusion on the mechanical properties of steel. The present article discusses the results of a thermodynamic study carried out on the various synthetic slags for inclusion removal. It involves computational thermodynamics determining the products of deoxidation, their physical properties and their implication on the quality of steel.


Thermodynamic modelling Steelmaking Non-metallic inclusions Synthetic slag Clean steel 



  1. 1.
    Zhang L, and Thomas B G, Inclusion Investigation during Clean Steel Production at Baosteel, ISS Tech (2003), p 141Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shahapurkar D S, and Small W M, Metall Mater Trans B 18B (1987) 231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Herrera-Trejo M, Castro M R, Méndez J N, and Solís H T, Scand J Metall 27 (1998) 233Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Crafts W, and Hilty D C, Deoxidation and Inclusion control for Alloy Steel, Symposium on Production, Properties and Application of Steels (1953), p 148.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wilson A D, Clean Steel Technology—Fundamental to the Development of High Performance Steels, Advances in the Production and Use of Steel with Improved Internal Cleanliness, ASTM Selected Technical Paper 1361 (1999), p 73Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang L, and Thomas B G, in 85th Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, ISS-AIME, Warrendale, PA (2002) p 431Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang L, and Thomas B G, ISIJ Int 43 (2003) 271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang L, J Iron Steel Res Int 13 (2006) 1Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Björklund J, Thermodynamic Aspects on Inclusion Composition and Oxygen Activity during Ladle Treatment, Ph.D. Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden (2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Riyahimalayeri K, Slag, Steel, Ladle and Non-metallic Inclusions Equilibria in an ASEA-SKF Ladle Furnace, Ph.D. Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yang W, Zhang L, Wang X, Ren Y, Liu X, and Shan Q, ISIJ Int 53 (2013) 1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jung I-H, Kang Y-B, Decterov S A, and Pelton A D, Metall Mater Trans B 35 (2004) 259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kang Y-B, and Lee H-G, ISIJ Int 6 (2004) 1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Basu S, Choudhary S K, and Girase N U, ISIJ Int 10 (2004) 1653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bale C W, Bélisle E, Chartrand P, Decterov S A, Eriksson G, Gheribi A E, Hack K, Jung I, Kang Y, Melançon J, Pelton A D, Petersen S, Robelin C, Sangster J, Spencer P, and Van Ende M, CALPHAD Comput Coupling Phase Diagr Thermo Chem 54 (2016) 35Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jung I-H, Decterov S, and Pelton A D, J Phase Equilib 25 (2004), 329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jung I-H, Decterov S A, and Pelton A D, Metall Mater Trans B 35B (2004) 493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Madan M, Roy G G, and Prakash S, in Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking (ICS) (2015)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Socha L, Bažan J, Gryc K, and Machovčák P, Arch Mater Sci Eng 57 (2012), 80Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pretorius E, and Marr R, in Electrical Furnace Conference (1995), p 1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MER DivisionCSIR – NMLJamshedpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of MMEIITKharagpurIndia
  3. 3.CSIR – NMLJamshedpurIndia

Personalised recommendations