Analysis of Temperature Losses of the Liquid Steel in a Ladle Furnace During Desulfurization Stage

  • J. E. Farrera-Buenrostro
  • C. A. Hernández-Bocanegra
  • J. A. Ramos-BanderasEmail author
  • E. Torres-Alonso
  • N. M. López-Granados
  • M. A. Ramírez-Argáez
Technical Paper


In this research, a multiphase numerical simulation (steel–slag–argon) was carried out by coupling the VOF model with the transitory heat losses of the liquid steel during the injection of argon in the secondary refining process. To model the radiation in the free surface of the ladle, three models, P-1, discrete ordinates, and Rosseland, were considered. The thermal behavior of magnesia-carbon (MgO-C) and high alumina (Al2O3), which are commonly used in the industry, as a work wall was compared. Likewise, the behavior of two slag of different chemical composition was analyzed with two layer thicknesses. The results of the fluid dynamics agreed with those obtained in a physical scale model with the PIV technique. In addition, it was found that the Rosseland model allowed to quantify the radiative heat losses with a good approximation according to the results obtained in the industry. It was observed that the more viscous slag with greater thickness reduced the opening of the slag layer. Finally, the heat losses in the liquid steel could be controlled by manipulating the variables of thickness and viscosity of the slag and also the type of refractory of the ladle.


Multiphase numerical model Heat transfer Ladle furnace Radiation modeling 

List of Symbols


Absorption coefficient (m−1)


Linear-anisotropic phase function coefficient (–)

C1ε, C2ε

Empirical constants of kε turbulence model (–)


Empirical constant of kε turbulence model (–)


Heat capacity (J kg−1 K−1)


Energy (m2 s−2)


Gravity acceleration (m s−2)


Generation of turbulence kinetic energy (–)


Sensible enthalpy (J)


Intensity radiation (–)


Sensible enthalpy (J)


Intensity radiation (–)


Turbulent kinetic energy (m2 s−2)


Effective conductivity (W m−1 K−1)


Intensity radiation (–)


Turbulent kinetic energy (m2 s−2)


Effective conductivity (W m−1 K−1)

\(\vec{r}^{{\prime }}\)

Turbulent thermal conductivity (W m−1 K−1)


Refractive index of medium (–)

\(\overrightarrow {s}^{{\prime }}\)

Effective conductivity (W m−1 K−1)


Refractive index of medium (–)


Time (s)


Velocity (m s−1)

ui, uj

Mean velocity in the directions i, j in the Cartesian coordinate directions (m s−1)


Argon gas velocity (m s−1)

Greek Symbols


Phase fraction of a control cell for different phases (–)


Density (kg m−3)


Dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (m2 s−3)


Molecular viscosity (Pa s)


Turbulent viscosity (Pa s)


Effective viscosity (Pa s)


Viscous dissipation (N m−2)


Phase function (–)

\(\Omega^{{\prime }}\)

Solid angle (–)


Stefan–Boltzmann constant (W m−2 K−4)


Scattering coefficient (m−1)

σk, σε

Prandtl turbulent number for kε model (–)



The authors want to acknowledge the CONACyT, TecNM, ITM and CÁTEDRAS CONACyT for their continuous support.


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Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tecnológico Nacional de MéxicoInstituto Tecnológico de MoreliaMoreliaMexico
  2. 2.CATEDRAS-CONACyTBenito JuárezMexico
  3. 3.School of ChemistryNational Autonomous University of MexicoMexicoMexico

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