Microinclusion Evaluation Using Various Standards

  • P. Pavan KumarEmail author
  • G. Balachandran
Technical Paper


A comparison has been made on inclusion rating of steels using various inclusion standards including ASTM E45, DIN 50602, JIS G0555, ISO 4967:2013 (E), IS4163:2004, GOST 1778-70 and ASTM E2283 Murakami’s extreme value analysis. Eight different steels were prepared and subjected to investigation as per the standards chosen. The study brings out the relative rating measure in the various standards. The extreme value analysis could be effectively used to find the largest macro-oxide inclusion within a given size range, which had potential for initiation of fatigue failure in the steel. The inclusions found using extreme value analysis were characterized by SEM–EDS to understand the type of inclusions.


Nonmetallic inclusions Extreme value statistics Gumbel distribution Murakami model Scanning electron microscope 



This work is carried out as a part of Master degree program assigned by the Andhra University College of Engineering, Visakhapatnam. The support given by Mr C Rajagopal, Mrs Deepa Rajan, Ms V Madhuri and B Gobinath in characterization in optical and SEM is gratefully acknowledged. The authors would like to thank the Senior Management of JSW steel Salem Works for the support and encouragement to complete this work.


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Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Andhra University College of EngineeringVisakhapatnamIndia
  2. 2.JSW Steel LimitedSalemIndia

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