Mechanism of Interface Reactions Between Fe-2%Al Alloy and High-Silica Tundish Refractory

  • Abdulaziz Alhussein
  • Wen YangEmail author
Technical Paper


The reactions between a Fe-2%Al alloy and a high-silica tundish refractory were investigated at 1550 °C in an alumina crucible using a high-frequency induction furnace. The reaction between the dissolved aluminum in the molten alloy and the oxidizing components in the refractory took place at the interface, generating a MgO·Al2O3 spinel as the main product, which was confirmed by both experimental and FactSage™ 7.0 calculated results. Several layers were detected at the interface depending on an aluminum diffusion in the refractory material and the reaction time. However, the formation of MgO·Al2O3 spinel layer at the interface delayed the reduction of silica because aluminum diffusion became very slow through the interfacial layer. The mass transfer coefficient of silicon in the Fe-2%Al alloy was 7.91 × 10−4 m/s. FactSage™ 7.0 calculated results indicated that the content of silicon in the alloy was higher than that of magnesium, as the result of transformation of forsterite phase to MgO·Al2O3 spinel at the interface.


Alloy Reaction Dissolution Interfacial layer Forsterite 



The authors are grateful for the support from National Science Foundation China (Grant Nos. 51874031 and 51725402), the High Quality Steel Consortium (HQSC) and Green Process Metallurgy and Modeling (GPM2) at the School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering at University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), China.


  1. 1.
    Sutou Y, Kamiya N, Umino R, Ohnuma I, and Ishida K, ISIJ Int 50 (2010) 893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grong O, and Matlock D K, Int Metall Rev 31 (1986) 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zuidema B, Subramanyam D, and Leslie W, Metall Mater Trans A 18 (1987) 1629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lai H, and Wan C, J Mater Sci 24 (1989) 2449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wei Y, Li N, and Ke C, Am Ceram Soc Bull 86 (2007) 9201.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thomas B G, and Bai H, in Steelmaking Conference Proceedings (2001),p 895.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vermeulen Y, Coletti B, Blanpain B, Wollants P, and Haers F, in Proc 58th Steelmaking Conference (2000), p 175.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Luhrsen E, Ott A, Parbel W, Piret J, Ruddlestone R, and Short B, in 1st European Conference on Continuous Casting (1991), p 1.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoffken E, Lax H, and Pietzko G, 4 th International Conference Continuous Casting, Preprints (1988) 461.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harada A, Miyano G, Maruoka N, Shibata H, and Kitamura S, ISIJ Int 54 (2014) 2230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Deng Z, Zhu M, and Sichen D, Metall Mater Trans B 47 (2016) 3158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee Y, Jung S M, and Min D J, Ironmak Steelmak 41 (2014) 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brabie V, ISIJ Int 36 (1996) 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bannenberg N, and Lachmund H, METEC Congress 94. 2nd European Continuous Casting Conference, 6 th International Rolling Conference (1994) 25.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yan P, Van Ende MA, Zinngrebe E, van der Laan S, Blanpain B, and Guo M, ISIJ Int 54 (2014) 2551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mantovani M, Moraes L, Leandro da Silva R, Cabral E, Possente E, Barbosa C, and Ramos B, Ironmak Steelmak 40 (2013) 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lehmann J, Boher M, and Kaerle M, CIM Bull 90 (1997) 69.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li H, and Wei Y, Br Ceram Trans 102 (2003) 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Guo M, Van Ende M A, Jones P T, Blanpain B, Wollants P, Zinngrebe E, van der Laan S, Van Hoek C, and Westendorp A, in AIST Proceedings, Association for Iron and Steel Technology (2009), p 621.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Arh B, Tehovnik F, and Vode F, METALURGIJA 56 (2017) 40.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang Q, Sun M, Qiu S, Tian Z, Zhu G, Wang L, and Zhao P, Metall Mater Trans B 45 (2014) 540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang P, and Seetharaman S, J Am Ceram Soc 77 (1994) 970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yan P, Arnout S, Van Ende M A, Zinngrebe E, Jones T, Blanpain B, and Guo M, Metall Mater Trans B 46 (2015) 1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wei Y, Weiqing C, Yindong Y, Xiaobo Z, and Alex M, in AISTech 2015 Proceedings (2015), p 2162.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Banerjee N, Vadvi U, and Basu D S, Hradec nad Moravicí 20 (2003) 1.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Metallurgical and Ecological EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations