Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals

, Volume 71, Issue 12, pp 3077–3087 | Cite as

Water Cooling Effects on the Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Friction-Stir-Processed Al-6061 Alloy

  • Yu ChenEmail author
  • Yifu Jiang
  • Fenghe Zhang
  • Hua Ding
  • Jingwei Zhao
  • Zhaohui Ren
Technical Paper


Water cooling was applied during friction stir processing (FSP) of an Al-6061 alloy, and it was found that the strengthening efficiency induced by water cooling was varied, which was dependent on the initial base metal temper. As to the natural-aged Al-6061 alloy (6061-NA), the stir zone (SZ) was strengthened significantly by water cooling. Compared with the air-cooled FSP sample, the relatively high strength of the water-cooled FSP sample mainly arose from grain refinement, increased density of dislocations and large amounts of fine re-precipitated Guinier–Preston zones in the SZ. On the contrary, as to the annealed Al-6061 alloy (6061-O), the difference in the microstructural evolution between the FSP samples with and without water cooling was nonsignificant, where only finer grain morphology was observed in the water-cooled SZ, and thus the strengthening effects caused by water cooling became less.


Aluminum alloy Initial base metal temper Friction stir processing Water cooling Properties 



The present study is financially supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No.N172410002-03). Besides, one of the authors, Zhaohui Ren gratefully acknowledges the financial support from the National Science Foundation of China (No.51475084) and National Support Program, National Key Research and Development (No.2017YFB1103700).


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Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yifu Jiang
    • 2
  • Fenghe Zhang
    • 1
  • Hua Ding
    • 2
  • Jingwei Zhao
    • 3
  • Zhaohui Ren
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical Engineering and AutomationNortheastern UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Materials Science and EngineeringNortheastern UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.School of Mechanical, Materials, Mechatronic and Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

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