Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals

, Volume 71, Issue 11, pp 2699–2705 | Cite as

Analysis of Local Conditions on Graphite Growth and Shape During Solidification of Ductile Cast Iron

  • Niels S. TiedjeEmail author
  • Mathias K. Bjerre
  • Mohammed A. Azeem
  • Jesper H. Hattel
  • Peter D. Lee
Technical Paper


3D X-ray tomography recordings have been used to study graphite growth during solidification of ductile cast iron. Using data from such recordings, it is shown how local growth conditions influence growth rate and morphology of nodules during solidification. Experiments show that it is common for nodules to gradually change shape during solidification so that sphericity decreases. It is also found that different shaped nodules can evolve in direct contact with liquid iron and also after they are encapsulated in austenite. It is observed that a significant proportion of originally complete spherical nodules become less spherical via formation of protrusions on the surface; these new surfaces are observed to grow relatively faster. It is shown that encapsulation of the graphite nodule by austenite may be incomplete and that at the end of solidification, partial encapsulation and the effect of the number of nearest graphite nodules play a crucial role in determining the final graphite morphology.


Ductile cast iron X-ray tomography Graphite growth Solidification 



MKB was supported financially by the Strategic Research Center ‘REWIND0, Danish Research Council for Strategic Research, Grant No. 10-093966. The authors would like to thank Diamond Light Source (DLS), UK, especially the remarkable support they received from the I12 beamline staff during the EE12204-1 beam time. This work would not have been possible without funding from Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC, Grant No. EP/I02249X/1) and Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS, Grant No. RFSR-PR-10005 DDT). MAA would like to thank Research Complex at Harwell for continuously supporting his research. MAA would also like to acknowledge funding from University Research Program of Ford Motor Company and NERC (NE/M013561/1); a part of this paper was written while MAA was working on those projects. Data statement: due to its large size, the underlying raw data are not shared online, but representative sample data are included in the figures. The entire data sets are stored at DLS and are available from the authors on reasonable request.


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Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niels S. Tiedje
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mathias K. Bjerre
    • 2
  • Mohammed A. Azeem
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jesper H. Hattel
    • 1
  • Peter D. Lee
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringTechnical University of DenmarkKgs. LyngbyDenmark
  2. 2.ØrstedGentofteDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Research Complex at Harwell, RALDidcotUK

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