Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals

, Volume 71, Issue 12, pp 2993–3001 | Cite as

Reduction of Manavalakurichi ilmenite by Activated Charcoal in Presence of Catalyst

  • Kamalesh K. Singh
  • Bipin Kishor
  • Tilak Raj Mankhand
Technical Paper


The reserves of ilmenite are abundant in India; however, it needs to be upgraded to synthetic rutile. The carbothermic reduction is one of the most effective processing methods to produce TiO2. However, it is more energy intensive method as is carried out at high temperature. The present paper studies the carbothermic reduction of Manavalakurichi ilmenite concentrate by charcoal in the presence of sodium carbonate. The sodium carbonate as catalyst has significant effect on kinetics of reduction. It is able to save energy by reducing the reduction temperature for same degree of reduction at high temperature without catalyst.


Carbothermic reduction Ilmenite Activated charcoal Catalyst Sodium carbonate 



The authors are grateful to the Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi for providing the facilities required for this study.


  1. 1.
    U.S. geological survey, Mineral commodities summaries, January (2016), pp 179.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Patra, R N, and Mukherjee T K in Proceeding of international on metals and materials from titanium minerals, NMD-ATM, Indian Institute of Metals, Trivandrum, (2004), pp 1.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pistorius, P C, in The 6th International Heavy Minerals Conference, Back to Basics, The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2007. pp 75.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mackey T S, Upgrading ilmenite into a high grade synthetic rutile; Review of extraction and processing; (1994), pp 59.; Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen Y, Hwang T, and Marsh M et al. Metall and Mat Trans A 28 (1997) 1115. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sasikumar C et al., Hydrometallurgy 88 (2007) 54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang Y, and Yuan Z, Int J Miner Process 28 (2006) 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gupta S K, Rajkumar V, and Grievson P, Metall Trans (B) 18 (1989) 735.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wouterlood H J, J Chem Technol Biotechnol 29 (1979) 603. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    El-Guindy M I, and Davenport W G MT 1 (1970) 1729. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gupta S K, Rajkumar V, and Grievson P, Metall Trans (B) 18 (1987) 713.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Francis A A, and Midany E L, Mater Process Technol 199 (2008) 279–286. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kucukkaragoz C S, and Eric R H, Miner Eng 19(3) (2006) 334. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang Y M, Yuan Z F, Zhao H X, Xiong S F, Jinag W Z and Li Z Y, Non-ferrous Metal 20 (2010) 924.
  15. 15.
    Chen Y, Marsh M, Williams J S, and Ninham B, Alloy Compd 245 (1996) 54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Mohammad A R, Dewan G, Zhang G, and Ostrovoski O, Metall Mater Trans B vol 41(B) (2010) 182. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li W, Peng J, Guo S, Zhang L, Chen G, Xia H, Chem Ind Chem Eng Q 19(3) (2013) 423 (11). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brown M E, Thermochim Acta 300 (1997) 93. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kamalesh K. Singh
    • 1
  • Bipin Kishor
    • 1
  • Tilak Raj Mankhand
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of TechnologyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations