Recovery of Ruthenium Via Zinc in the Presence of Accelerator

  • Serdar Aktas
  • Mehmet Hakan Morcali
  • Kemal Aksu
  • Burak Aksoy
Technical Paper
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, the recovery of ruthenium from spent bath solutions via cementation reaction with zinc powder was investigated. Studied parameters included the quantity of zinc, reaction temperature, reaction time and sodium chloride additions to understand their effects on the reaction. Tests were performed in a temperature controlled water-bath with temperatures between 20 and 70 °C at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, in order to determine activation energy of cementation reaction, several mathematical kinetic models were used and the activation energy, which was calculated from best fit, was found to be 12.48 kJ/mol. Addition of sodium chloride to the solution greatly accelerated the cementation reaction, in that, more the addition of sodium chloride, the better was the precipitation efficiency. In the absence of sodium chloride at 25 °C a percentage of ruthenium recovery was below 75% whereas 1000 mg sodium chloride addition at 65 °C ensured a percentage of ruthenium recovery more than 95%. This corresponded to more than about 28% increase.

Keywords

Ruthenium Zinc Cementation Recovery Spent bath solutions 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Marmara University for supporting the BAPKO project No: FEN-A-150513-0165 and FEN-E-080415-0110. The authors would also like to thank MC 365 laboratory persons at Marmara University for useful and helpful comments to improve the quality of the present work.

References

  1. 1.
    Swain P, Mallika C, Srinivasan R, Mudali U K, and Natarajan R, J Radioanal Nucl Chem 298 (2013) 781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rao C R K, and Trivedi D C, Coordin Chem Rev 249 (2005) 613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hunt L, and Lever F, Platin Met Rev 13 (1969) 126.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jones T, Met Finish 99 (2001) 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benguerel E, Demopoulos G, and Harris G, Hydrometallurgy 40 (1996) 135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xiao Z, and Laplante A, Miner Eng 17 (2004) 961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Habashi F, Hydrometallurgy 79 (2005) 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jackson E, Miner Eng 9 (1996) 469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Panigrahi S, Dash T, Nathsarma K C, and Sarangi K, Sep Sci Technol 49 (2014) 545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Qadeer R, Colloids Surf Physicochem Eng Aspects 293 (2007) 217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Colica G, Caparrotta S, and De Philippis R, Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 95 (2012) 381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mimura H, Ohta H, Akiba K, and Onodera Y, J Nucl Sci Technol 39 (2002) 655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zachariasen H, and Beamish F, Anal Chem 34 (1962) 964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Younesi S R, Alimadadi H, Alamdari E K, and Marashi S P H, Hydrometallurgy 84 (2006) 155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ryzhov A G, and Sushchev A V, Tsvetnye Metally 11 (1985) 25.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zeytuncu B, Morcali M H, Celik O H, and Yucel O, Investigation of Optimum Cementation Conditions of Ruthenium with Experimental Design in EPD Congress 2013, Wiley, New York (2013).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aktas S, Hydrometallurgy 106 (2011) 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aktas S, Int J Miner Process 114 (2012) 100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aktas S, Can Metall Q 47 (2008) 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aktas S, and Morcali M H, Miner Metall Process 28 (2011) 198.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Aktas S, Morcali M H, and Yucel O, Can Metall Q 49 (2010) 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Habashi F, Principles of Extractive Metallurgy, Vol. 1, CRC Press, Boca Raton (1969).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Levenspiel O, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Vol. 2, Wiley, New York (1972).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Petrucci R H, Herring F G, and Madura J D, General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Prentice Hall, Canada (2010).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serdar Aktas
    • 1
  • Mehmet Hakan Morcali
    • 2
  • Kemal Aksu
    • 1
  • Burak Aksoy
    • 1
  1. 1.Metallurgical and Materials Division, Engineering FacultyMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Environmental EngineeringKahramanmaraş Sutcu Imam UniversityKahramanmarasTurkey

Personalised recommendations