Recovery of Ruthenium Via Zinc in the Presence of Accelerator
- 81 Downloads
In this study, the recovery of ruthenium from spent bath solutions via cementation reaction with zinc powder was investigated. Studied parameters included the quantity of zinc, reaction temperature, reaction time and sodium chloride additions to understand their effects on the reaction. Tests were performed in a temperature controlled water-bath with temperatures between 20 and 70 °C at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, in order to determine activation energy of cementation reaction, several mathematical kinetic models were used and the activation energy, which was calculated from best fit, was found to be 12.48 kJ/mol. Addition of sodium chloride to the solution greatly accelerated the cementation reaction, in that, more the addition of sodium chloride, the better was the precipitation efficiency. In the absence of sodium chloride at 25 °C a percentage of ruthenium recovery was below 75% whereas 1000 mg sodium chloride addition at 65 °C ensured a percentage of ruthenium recovery more than 95%. This corresponded to more than about 28% increase.
KeywordsRuthenium Zinc Cementation Recovery Spent bath solutions
The authors thank Marmara University for supporting the BAPKO project No: FEN-A-150513-0165 and FEN-E-080415-0110. The authors would also like to thank MC 365 laboratory persons at Marmara University for useful and helpful comments to improve the quality of the present work.
- 3.Hunt L, and Lever F, Platin Met Rev 13 (1969) 126.Google Scholar
- 15.Ryzhov A G, and Sushchev A V, Tsvetnye Metally 11 (1985) 25.Google Scholar
- 16.Zeytuncu B, Morcali M H, Celik O H, and Yucel O, Investigation of Optimum Cementation Conditions of Ruthenium with Experimental Design in EPD Congress 2013, Wiley, New York (2013).Google Scholar
- 20.Aktas S, and Morcali M H, Miner Metall Process 28 (2011) 198.Google Scholar
- 22.Habashi F, Principles of Extractive Metallurgy, Vol. 1, CRC Press, Boca Raton (1969).Google Scholar
- 23.Levenspiel O, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Vol. 2, Wiley, New York (1972).Google Scholar
- 24.Petrucci R H, Herring F G, and Madura J D, General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Prentice Hall, Canada (2010).Google Scholar