Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals

, Volume 65, Issue 6, pp 509–513

Solidification of Silicon for Solar Cells

  • Lars Arnberg
  • Marisa Di Sabatino
  • Eivind Øvrelid
Technical Paper

Abstract

Silicon is the dominating material in solar cells. Monocrystalline and multicrystalline cells have approximately equal market shares and are produced from wafers, cut from single crystals produced by Czochralski (CZ) pulling or from polycrystalline ingots made by directional solidification, respectively. The present paper reviews how demands for lower cost, better yield, higher efficiency and use of less pure silicon in solar cells are addressed by advanced solidification processing. In monocrystalline solar silicon, careful growth control results in less point defects, and better efficiency. Continuous- or semi-continuous CZ growth processes are being developed for better productivity and lower cost. In multicrystalline solar silicon, extended defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries decrease efficiency, particularly in combination with new, less expensive, but more contaminated silicon feedstock. This problem is addressed by control of nucleation and growth of ingots with larger grains, preferred grain orientation and lower dislocation density.

Keywords

Crystallization Solar Energy Directional solidification Photovoltaics 

References

  1. 1.
    Arnberg L, Di Sabatino M, and Øvrelid E, JOM 63 (2011) 38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Di Sabatino M, Juel M, Arnberg L, Syvertsen M, and Tranell G, Trans Indian Inst Met 62(4–5) (2009) 511.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Juel M, Ryningen B, Søndenå R, Syvertsen M, Syre M, Di Sabatino M, Stokkan G, and Arnberg L, in CSSC5, Boston, 1–4 Nov 2011.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kvande R, Arnberg L, Martin C, Rancoule G, Dupuy L, and Holt A, in 21st EUPVSEC, Dresden, Germany, Sep 2006.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kvande R, Arnberg L, and Martin C, J Cryst Growth 311 (2009) 765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Modanese C, Di Sabatino M, Syvertsen M, and Arnberg L, J Cryst Growth 354(1) (2012) 27.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coletti G, Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (Wiley Ltd.), 2012, Vol. Published online, doi:10.1002/pip.2195
  8. 8.
    Voronkov V, J Cryst Growth 310 (2008) 1307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hu Y, Juel M, Øvrelid E J, and Arnberg L, in 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Hamburg, Germany, 5–9 Sep 2011.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jomâa M, in 3rd International Workshop on Crystalline Solar Silicon Solar Cells, SINTEF/NTNU, Trondheim (2009).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Institute of Metals 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lars Arnberg
    • 1
  • Marisa Di Sabatino
    • 1
  • Eivind Øvrelid
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science EngineeringNorwegian University of Science TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.SINTEF Materials and ChemistryTrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations