Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, 78:677 | Cite as

Fractal analysis of pore structure of granite after variable thermal cycles

  • Fei Zhao
  • Qiang SunEmail author
  • Weiqiang Zhang
Original Article
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

Thermal cycling can change the micro-structure of rock, and the change of pore characteristics is an important manifestation of its structural change. In this paper, the pore characteristics of granite under different thermal cycling conditions [i.e., variable thermal cycles (i.e., 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20); variable temperatures (i.e., 25, 250, 350, 450, 550, and 650 °C)] are studied by mercury intrusion technique under the research background of dry–hot rock development. The results show that the pore characteristic distribution curve of granite shows obvious bimodal characteristics. According to this, the pore of granite can be divided into two categories (i.e., 0.01 < r < 10 μm and 10 < r < 200 μm). According to the analysis of pore distribution under different thermal cycling conditions, the influence of thermal cycling on the pores is great, especially for the pores with pore diameter of 0.1–100 μm, its diameter and volume increase with the increase of temperature. In addition, the results of fractal dimension calculation show that the number of thermal cycles has little effect on pore structure, while temperature has a great influence on pore structure, which reduces the complexity of the pore structure with pore diameter of 0.01–10 μm and increases the complexity of the pore structure with pore diameter of 10–200 μm.

Keywords

Granite pores Cooling and thermal treatment Fractal dimension 

List of symbols

Nc

The number of thermal cycles

Φ

Sample diameter (mm)

D

Fractal dimension

R2

Coefficient of determination

V0

Total volume of the sample

V(r)

Solid volume of rock

VP(r)

Total volume of pores

P(r)

Pressure required for mercury to fill the pore size r (MPa)

r

Pore size/diameter (μm)

σ

Surface tension of mercury (480 mN/cm)

θ

Contact angle between mercury and solid (140°)

VP

Volume of mercury injected into the pores of the rock at injection pressure P

P

Injection pressure (MPa)

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41672279, 41807233) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grant No. BK20180662). We would also like to thank the technicians who helped us during the experiment and the anonymous reviewer for the constructive comments.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts to declare.

References

  1. Abdulagatov IM, Abdulagatova ZZ, Kallaev SN (2015) Thermal-diffusivity and heat-capacity measurements of sandstone at high temperatures using laser flash and DSC methods. Int J Thermophys 36(4):658–691.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10765-014-1829-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alm O (1985) The influence of micro crack density on the elastic and fracture mechanical properties of stropa granite. Phys Earth Planet In 40(3):161–179.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9201(85)90127-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bauer SJ, Handin J (1983) Thermal expansion and cracking of three confined water-saturated igneous rocks to 800 °C. Rock Mech Rock Eng 16(3):181–198.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01033279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brotóns V, Tomás R, Ivorra S, Alarcón JC (2013) Temperature influence on the physical and mechanical properties of a porous rock: San Julian’s calcarenite. Eng Geol 167:117–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Duan ZF, Wang XY (2012) Study on optimal reinjection strategy of geothermal field: a case study from Tianjin, North China. Adv Mater Res 7:524–527Google Scholar
  6. Freire DM, Fort R, Varas MJ (2016) Thermal stress-induced microcracking in building granite. Eng Geol 206:83–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2016.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gailhanou H, Lerouge C, Debure M, Gaboreau S, Gaucher EC, Grangeon S (2017) Effects of a thermal perturbation on mineralogy and pore water composition in a clay-rock: an experimental and modeling study. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 197:193–214.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ghassemi A, Tarasovs S, Cheng AHD (2007) A 3-D study of the effects of thermomechanical loads on fracture slip in enhanced geothermal reservoirs. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 44(8):1132–1148.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2007.07.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hassanzadegan A, Blöcher G, Milsch H, Urpi L (2014) The effects of temperature and pressure on the porosity evolution of Flechtinger sandstone. Rock Mech Rock Eng 47:421–434.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-013-0401-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Homand-Etienne F, Houpert R (1989) Thermally induced microcracking in granites: characterization and analysis. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 26:125–134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(89)90001-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Juan LPB, Bello MA (2001) Fractal geometry and mercury porosimetry: comparison and application of proposed models on building stones. Appl Surf Sci 185(1–2):99–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-4332(01)00649-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kinoshita N, Yasuhara H (2010) Thermally induced behavior of the openings in rock mass affected by high temperatures. Int J Geomech 11(2):124–130.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)gm.1943-5622.0000063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lai J, Wang GW (2015) Fractal analysis of tight gas sandstones using high-pressure mercury intrusion techniques. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 24:185–196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2015.03.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li K, Horne RN (2006) Fractal modeling of capillary pressure curves for the Geysers rocks. Geothermics 35:198–207.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2006.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu S, Xu J (2014) Mechanical properties of Qinling biotite granite after high temperature treatment. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 71:188–193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2014.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu F, Xiong F, Liang F (2015) Investigation of pore structure and fractal characteristics of organic rich Yanchang formation shale in central China by nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 22:62–72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Menendez B, David C, Darot D (1999) A study of the crack network in thermally and mechanically cracked granite samples using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Phys Chem Earth 24:627–632.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1464-1895(99)00091-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pearson CF, Fehler MC, Albright JN (1983) Changes in compressional and shear-wave velocities and dynamic moduli during operation of a hot dry rock geothermal system. J Geophys Res 88(B4):3468–3475.  https://doi.org/10.1029/JB088iB04p03468 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Plevová E, Vaculíková L, Kozušníková A (2010) Thermal study of sandstones from different Czech localities. J Therm Anal Calorim 103(3):835–843.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-010-1129-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Spencer JW, Nut AM (1976) The effects of pressure, temperature, and pore water on velocities in Westerly granite. J Geophys Res 81:899–904.  https://doi.org/10.1029/JB081i005p00899 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sun Q, Zhang Z, Xue L, Zhu S (2013) High temperature phase transformation and changes in physical and mechanical properties of rocks. J Rock Mech Eng 32(5):935–942.  https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-6915.2013.05.011 (in Chinese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sun Q, Zhang W, Xue L, Zhang Z, Su T (2015) Thermal damage pattern and thresholds of granite. Environ Earth Sci 74(3):2341–2349.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-4234-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Todd T, Simmons G (1972) Effect of pore pressure on the velocity of compressional waves in low-porosity rocks. J Geophys Res 77:3731–3743.  https://doi.org/10.1029/JB077i020p03731 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tsakiroglou CD, Payatakes AC (2000) Characterization of the pore structure of reservoir rocks with the aid of serial sectioning analysis, mercury porosimetry and network simulation. Adv Water Resour 23(7):773–789.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1708(00)00002-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wang H, Liu Y, Song Y, Zhao Y, Zhao J, Wang D (2012) Fractal analysis and its impact factors on pore structure of artificial cores based on the images obtained using magnetic resonance imaging. J Appl Geophys 86:70–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2012.07.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang S, Liu J, Sun Y, Liu S, Gao X, Sun C, Li H (2018) Study on the geothermal production and reinjection mode in Xiong County. J Ground Water Sci Eng 5(3):178–186.  https://doi.org/10.19637/j.cnki.2305-7068.2018.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Washburn EW (1921) The dynamics of capillary flow. Phys Rev 17(3):273.  https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.17.273 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Xu XL (2008) Research on the mechanical characteristics and micromechanism of granite under temperature loads. China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  29. Xu XL, Gao F, Shen X (2010) Study on mechanical properties and micropore structure characteristics of granite after high temperature. Geotech Mech 31(6):1752–1758.  https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-7598.2010.06.012 (in Chinese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yang F, Ning Z, Liu H (2014) Fractal characteristics of shales from a shale gas reservoir in the Sichuan Basin, China. Fuel 115:378–384.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.07.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yavuz H, Demirdag S, Caran S (2010) Thermal effect on the physical properties of carbonate rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 47(1):94–103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2009.09.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yoshitaka N, Naoki H, Tetsuro Y, Katsuhiko K (2010) Effects of relative humidity and temperature on subcritical crack growth in igneous rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 47(4):640–646.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1672-2515(07)60122-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang WQ (2017) Study on microscopic mechanism of rock thermal damage and evolution characteristics of macro physical and mechanical properties. China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  34. Zhang W, Sun Q, Hao S, Geng J (2016) Experimental study on the variation of physical and mechanical properties of rock after high temperature treatment. Appl Therm Eng 98:1297–1304.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang Y, Sun Q, Cao L, Geng J (2017a) Pore, mechanics and acoustic emission characteristics of limestone under the influence of temperature. Appl Therm Eng 123:1237–1244.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.05.199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhang Y, Sun Q, He H, Cao L, Zhang W, Wang B (2017b) Pore characteristics and mechanical properties of sandstone under the influence of temperature. App Therm Eng 113:537–543.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.11.061 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Resources and GeosciencesChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Geological Research Institute for Coal Green MiningXi’an University of Science and TechnologyXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.College of Geology and EnvironmentXi’an University of Science and TechnologyXi’anPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations