Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, 78:687 | Cite as

Estimating groundwater recharge on the southern slope of Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

  • Zuberi D. LwimboEmail author
  • Hans C. Komakech
  • Alfred N. N. Muzuka
Original Article
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

This paper used three methods namely: water-table fluctuation (WTF), soil moisture balance (SMB), and chloride mass balance (CMB) to estimate groundwater recharge in a degraded Kahe catchment located on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Three methods yielded different groundwater recharge rates. Results of the WTF method showed that recharge in the catchment was about 248.4 million m3/year, whereas those of CMB and SMB methods were 156.0 and 132.1 million m3/year, respectively. The estimated recharge rates ranged between 132.1 and 248.4 million m3/year with an average of 191.34 ± 27.80 million m3/year. Differences in the estimated rates can be attributed to the scales of measurements, assumptions in each method, and the quality of the data used. Satellite images taken in between 2000 and 2017 were used to estimate the land-use changes and their impacts on groundwater recharge in the study catchment. Analyzed satellite images showed that over the 17-year period, natural forests and bushes and shrubs decreased by 3.6 and 4.1%, while agricultural land and built-up area increased by 12.8 and 0.8%, respectively. Using SMB method, we found that these land-use changes have contributed to a decrease in groundwater recharge of about 42% between 2000 and 2017 (i.e., from 227.8 to 132.1 million m3/year). The findings from this study are useful for assessing the potential impacts of land-use change on water resources in the catchment.

Keywords

Water-table fluctuation Soil moisture balance Chloride mass balance Groundwater recharge Land-use change Tanzania 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the support offered by the Pangani Basin water office (PBWO) and Moshi district councils during field work for data collection. This research was funded by the Centre for Water Infrastructure and Sustainable Energy Futures (WISE-Futures), one of the East and Southern African Centres of Excellence initiated by the World Bank and hosted by the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ahmad I, Verma V, Verma MK (2015) Application of curve number method for estimation of runoff potential in GIS environment. In: 2nd international conference on geological and civil engineering. pp 16–20Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed B, Ahmed R, Zhu X (2013) Evaluation of model validation techniques in land cover dynamics. Int J Geo-Inform 2(3):577–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aishlin PS (2006) Groundwater recharge estimation using chloride mass balance, Dry Creek Experimental Watershed, Dissertation for Award of masters at Boise State University, p 124Google Scholar
  4. Apha A (1995) WPCF, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakundukize C, Marc V, Walraevens K (2011) Estimation of groundwater recharge in Bugesera region (Burundi) using soil moisture budget approach. Geologica Belgica. 14(1–2):85–102Google Scholar
  6. Bazuhair AS, Wood WW (1996) Chloride mass-balance method for estimating groundwater recharge in arid areas: examples from western Saudi Arabia. J Hydrol 186(1–4):153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brears E, Post R, Authority NVC (2014) NVCA water table fluctuation study. Nottawasaga Valley Conservation AuthorityGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruijnzeel LA, Sampurno SP (1990) Hydrology of moist tropical forests and effects of conversion: a state of knowledge review. Free University AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  9. Castaneda L, Rao P (2005) Comparison of methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration in Southern California. J Environ Hydrol 13(1):1–23Google Scholar
  10. Changming L, Jingjie Y, Kendy E (2001) Groundwater exploitation and its impact on the environment in the North China Plain. Water Int 26(2):265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Childs E (1960) The nonsteady state of the water table in drained land. J Geophys Res 65(2):780–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiwa R (2012) Effects of Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Hydrology of Weruweru-Kiladeda Sub-Catchment in Pangani River Basin, Tanzania, Dissertation for Award of master at Kenyatta University, p 128Google Scholar
  13. Congalton RG, Green K (2008) Assessing the accuracy of remotely sensed data: principles and practices. CRC Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Congedo L (2013) Semi-automatic classification plugin for QGIS. Sapienza University of Rome, Ardhi University Dar es SalaamGoogle Scholar
  15. de Bont C, Komakech HC, Veldwisch GJ (2019) Neither modern nor traditional: Farmer-led irrigation development in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. World Dev 116:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Delin GN, Healy RW, Lorenz DL, Nimmo JR (2007) Comparison of local-to regional-scale estimates of ground-water recharge in Minnesota, USA. J Hydrol 334(1–2):231–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dewitte O, Jones A, Spaargaren O, Breuning-Madsen H, Brossard M, Dampha A, Deckers J, Gallali T, Hallett S, Jones R (2013) Harmonisation of the soil map of Africa at the continental scale. Geoderma 211(16):138–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eastman J (2012) IDRISI Selva: Guide to GIS and image processing. Clark University, Clark Laboratories, Worcester, p 104Google Scholar
  19. El Mekki OA, Laftouhi N-E, Hanich L (2017) Estimate of regional groundwater recharge rate in the Central Haouz Plain, Morocco, using the chloride mass balance method and a geographical information system. Appl Water Sci 7(4):1679–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eriksson E, Khunakasem V (1969) Chloride concentration in groundwater, recharge rate and rate of deposition of chloride in the Israel Coastal Plain. J Hydrol 7(2):178–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fischer S (2013) Exploring a water balance method on recharge estimations in the Kilombero Valley, TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  22. Flint AL, Flint LE, Kwicklis EM, Fabryka-Martin JT, Bodvarsson GS (2002) Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: comparison of methods. J Hydrogeol 10(1):180–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Foster S, Cherlet J (2014) The links between land use and groundwater—Governance provisions and management strategies to secure a ‘sustainable harvest’. Global Water Partnership, Stockholm, p 20Google Scholar
  24. Foster S, Tuinhof A, Garduño H (2006) Groundwater development in sub-Saharan Africa. Washington D.C, US, p 12Google Scholar
  25. Gitec W (2011) Groundwater assessment of the Pangani Basin, Tanzania. The Pangani basin water board (PBWB) and international union for conservation of nature (IUCN), Moshi, TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  26. Gitika T, Ranjan S (2014) Estimation of Surface Runoff using NRCS Curve number procedure in Buriganga Watershed, Assam, India-A Geospatial Approach. Int Res J Earth Sci 2(5):1–7Google Scholar
  27. Grossmann M (2008) The Kilimanjaro Aquifer: a case study for the research project “Transboundary groundwater management in Africa”—conceptualizing cooperation on Africa’s transboundary groundwater resources. DIE Stud DIE, Bonn 11(32):87–125Google Scholar
  28. Grove A (1993) Water use by the Chagga on Kilimanjaro. Afr Affairs 92(368):431–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guan H, Love AJ, Simmons CT, Makhnin O, Kayaalp A (2010) Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 14(5):801–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hargreaves GH, Samani ZA (1985) Reference crop evapotranspiration from temperature. Appl Eng Agric 1(2):96–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Healy RW (2010) Estimating groundwater recharge. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Healy RW, Cook PG (2002) Using groundwater levels to estimate recharge. J Hydrogeol 10(1):91–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hemp A (2001) Ecology of the pteridophytes on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Part II: Habitat selection. Plant Biol. 3(5):493–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jena S, Tiwari K, Pandey A, Mishra S (2012) RS and Geographical Information System–based evaluation of distributed and composite curve number techniques. J Hydrol Eng 17(11):1278–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jiang P, Kitchen NR, Anderson SH, Sadler EJ, Sudduth KA (2008) Estimating plant-available water using the simple inverse yield model for claypan landscapes. Agron J 100(3):830–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnson AI (1967) Specific yield: compilation of specific yields for various materials. Washington D.C, US, p 71Google Scholar
  37. Komakech HC, de Bont C (2018) Differentiated access: challenges of equitable and sustainable groundwater exploitation in Tanzania. Water Alt 11(3):623Google Scholar
  38. Lerner DN, Issar AS, Simmers I (1990) Groundwater recharge: a guide to understanding and estimating natural recharge. Heise HannoverGoogle Scholar
  39. Marei A, Khayat S, Weise S, Ghannam S, Sbaih M, Geyer S (2010) Estimating groundwater recharge using the chloride mass-balance method in the West Bank, Palestine. Hydrol Sci J 55(5):780–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mato RR (2004) Groundwater pollution in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Assessing vulnerability and protection priorities, Dissertation for Award of Ph.D. at Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven. p 216Google Scholar
  41. Mbonile M, Misana MJ, Sokoni C (2003) Land use change patterns and root causes of land use change on the southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro, TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  42. McCabe GJ, Markstrom SL (2007) A monthly water-balance model driven by a graphical user interface. Geological Survey (US)Google Scholar
  43. Mckenzie JM, Mark BG, Thompson LG, Schotterer U, Lin P-N (2010) A hydrogeochemical survey of Kilimanjaro (Tanzania): implications for water sources and ages. J Hydrogeol 18(4):985–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Misstear BD (2000) Groundwater recharge assessment: a key component of river basin management. In: National Hydrology Seminar, pp 51–58Google Scholar
  45. Mjemah IC Van, Camp M, Martens K, Walraevens K (2011) Groundwater exploitation and recharge rate estimation of a quaternary sand aquifer in Dar-es-Salaam area, Tanzania. Environ Earth Sci 63(3):559–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mlingano (2006) Soils of Tanzania and their Potential for Agriculture Development. Department of Research and Training Mnistry of Agriculture, Food Security and Co-Operatives Tanga. TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  47. Musa SI, Hashim M, Reba MNM (2018) Geospatial modelling of urban growth for sustainable development in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Int J Rem Sens 01(43):1129–1161Google Scholar
  48. Naranjo G, Cruz-Fuentes T, Cabrera MD, Custodio E (2015) Estimating natural recharge by means of chloride mass balance in a volcanic aquifer: northeastern Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Water 7(6):2555–2574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nyvall J (2002) Soil water storage capacity and available soil moisture. Abbotsford, BCGoogle Scholar
  50. Onodera S (1993) Estimation of a rapid recharge mechanism in the semi-arid Upland, Tanzania. Appl Tracers Arid Zone Hydrol 37(215):151–159Google Scholar
  51. Onodera S (1995) Evaluation of the groundwater recharge process in a semi-arid region of Tanzania. Appl Tracers Arid Zone Hydrol 51(232):383–391Google Scholar
  52. Orehova T, Vasileva T (2014) Evaluation of the atmospheric chloride deposition in the Danube hydrological zone of Bulgaria. Environ Earth Sci 72(4):1143–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Otukei JR, Blaschke T (2010) Land cover change assessment using decision trees, support vector machines and maximum likelihood classification algorithms. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 12(6):27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pereira AR, Pruitt WO (2004) Adaptation of the Thornthwaite scheme for estimating daily reference evapotranspiration. Agric Water Manag 66(3):251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Røhr PC (2003) A hydrological study concerning the southern slopes of Mt Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, Dissertation for Award of Ph.D. at Norwegian University of Science and Technology, p 219Google Scholar
  56. Røhr PC, Killingtveit Å (2003) Rainfall distribution on the slopes of Mt Kilimanjaro. Hydrol Sci J 48(1):65–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rushton K, Eilers V, Carter R (2006) Improved soil moisture balance methodology for recharge estimation. J Hydrol 318(1–4):379–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rwebugisa RA (2008) Groundwater recharge assessment in the Makutupora Basin, Dodoma Tanzania, dissertation for award of masters at ITC, Netherlands, p 111Google Scholar
  59. Saghravani SR, Yusoff I, Tahir WZWM, Othman Z (2015) Comparison of water table fluctuation and chloride mass balance methods for recharge estimation in a tropical rainforest climate: a case study from Kelantan River catchment, Malaysia. Environ Earth Sci 73(8):4419–4428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sandström K (1995) The recent lake Babati floods in semi-arid Tanzania—a response to changes in land cover? Geografiska Annaler 77(1–2):35–44Google Scholar
  61. Scanlon BR, Healy RW, Cook PG (2002) Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge. Hydrogeol J 10(1):18–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Scanlon BR, Reedy RC, Stonestrom DA, Prudic DE, Dennehy KF (2005) Impact of land use and land cover change on groundwater recharge and quality in the southwestern US. Glob Change Biol 11(10):1577–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Seth S, Bhism K, Thomas T, Jaiswal R (1997) Rainfall-Runoff Modelling for Water Availability Study in Ken River Basin Using SCS-CN Model and Remote Sensing Approach. Technical Reports, National Institute of HydrologyGoogle Scholar
  64. Soini E (2002) Changing landscapes on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. An aerial photo interpretation between 1990 and 2000. Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  65. Sophocleous M (1985) The role of specific yield in ground-water recharge estimations: a numerical study. Ground Water 23(1):52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Thornthwaite C, Mather J (1955) The water balance. Centerton: Drexel Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Climatology, Publications in climatology. vol. 8, p 1Google Scholar
  67. Thornthwaite CW, Mather JR (1957) Instructions and tables for computing potential evapotranspiration and the water balance. Drexel Institute of Technology, Centerton, NJ (EUA). Laboratory of ClimatologyGoogle Scholar
  68. Ting C-S, Kerh T, Liao C-J (1998) Estimation of groundwater recharge using the chloride mass-balance method, Pingtung Plain, Taiwan. Hydrogeol J 6(2):282–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Trajkovic S (2005) Temperature-based approaches for estimating reference evapotranspiration. J Irrigat Drain Eng 131(4):316–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Trajkovic S, Kolakovic S (2009) Evaluation of reference evapotranspiration equations under humid conditions. Water Resour Manage 23(14):3057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Turpie J, Ngaga Y, Karanja F (2005) Catchment Ecosystems and Downstream Water: The Value of Water Resources in the Pangani Basin, Tanzania, Lao PDR. IUCN Water, Nature and Economics Technical Paper No. 7, IUCN The World Conservation UnionGoogle Scholar
  72. USDA S (1985) Hydrology, National Engineering Handbook, Section 4Google Scholar
  73. Walker D, Parkin G, Schmitter P, Gowing J, Tilahun SA, Haile AT, Yimam AY (2018) Insights from a multi-method recharge estimation comparison study. Groundwater. 57(2):245–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. WMP (1977) Water Master Plan. Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, p 46Google Scholar
  75. Wood WW (1999) Use and misuse of the chloride-mass balance method in estimating ground water recharge. Groundwater 37(1):2–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wood WW, Sanford WE (1995) Chemical and isotopic methods for quantifying ground-water recharge in a regional, semiarid environment. Groundwater 33(3):458–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zuberi D. Lwimbo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Hans C. Komakech
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alfred N. N. Muzuka
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Material Energy Water and Environmental Science (MEWES), Department of Water Environmental Science and Engineering (WESE)The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and TechnologyArushaTanzania
  2. 2.WISE-Futures: Centre for Water Infrastructure and Sustainable Energy FuturesThe Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and TechnologyArushaTanzania
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringArdhi UniversityDar es SalaamTanzania

Personalised recommendations