Environmental Earth Sciences

, 78:665 | Cite as

Modeling of geochemical processes and multivariate statistical analysis for hydrochemical assessment of spring water of the Outer Himalaya, India

  • Md. Arzoo Ansari
  • Archana DeodharEmail author
  • U. Saravana Kumar
Original Article


Water resources in the Himalayan region are under stress because of the changes in land use and land cover pattern and climate. In the recent past, the region has encountered extreme events such as cloud burst and widespread flooding. In this reference, this study was conducted on the spring water resources in the outer Himalayan region to assess their quality and quantity. The main geochemical processes and the impact of anthropogenic forcing on water chemistry were deciphered using geochemical modeling tools, multivariate statistical analysis and graphic plots. The hierarchical cluster analyses were used to categorize the springs in two clusters based on their chemical characteristics. The principal component analysis was used to evaluate the effective loading of spring water. Hydrochemical data, ionic ratios and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC were used to confirm the processes that govern the chemistry of the spring water. The results indicate that silicate weathering and anthropogenic activities are the dominant processes controlling the chemical evolution of spring water in the region. This study will provide a better insight for understanding the spring water resources and their sustainable management in the Himalayan region.


Groundwater Geochemical evolution Multivariate statistical analysis Modeling The Himalayas India 



The authors are grateful to Dr. P.K. Pujari, Associate Director, RC&IG, BARC for his encouragement and support. We thank Shri. V.S. Khati, HESCO, Dehradun; Dr. Gursharan Singh, Former Associate Director, RC&IG, BARC; Dr. K. Shivanna, Former Head, IHS; Dr. Noble Jacob, Shri G.N. Mendhekar and Shri S.N. Kamble, IRAD, BARC for their support given during the investigation. The cooperation and assistance extended by all the scientists and staffs of Himalayan Environmental Studies and Conservation Organisation (HESCO), Dehradun and Yuva Mahamandal Dhartidhar (YUMDHA), Nahan, Himachal Pradesh, during the field sampling program are thankfully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

12665_2019_8682_MOESM1_ESM.docx (283 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 282 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Md. Arzoo Ansari
    • 1
  • Archana Deodhar
    • 1
    Email author
  • U. Saravana Kumar
    • 2
  1. 1.Isotope and Radiation Application DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Isotope Hydrology Section, Division of Physical and Chemical SciencesInternational Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)ViennaAustria

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