Environmental Earth Sciences

, 78:663 | Cite as

Variations of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios in the cold and thermal springs of the Bazman volcanic area (in the southeast of Iran)

  • Davood Bahadori
  • Reza JahanshahiEmail author
  • Vahid Dehghani
  • Sepideh Mali
Original Article


The Bazman volcanic area, which comprises thermal and cold water springs with different natural characteristics, was selected as the case study of this research. The cold springs can be divided into western and eastern groups. In total, 16 water samples were collected from the thermal and cold water springs for hydrochemical and stable isotope analyses. In the study area, the groundwater temperature ranged from 28.1 °C (in the cold water) to 43.9 °C (in the hot springs). The electrical conductivity (EC) values of the groundwater samples were 1102–10,250 µS/cm. The highest EC values belonged to the thermal springs known to have brackish water in this area. The δ18O and δ2H values in the springs ranged from − 5.06 to 0.04 ‰ and − 24.1 to − 8.6 ‰, respectively. The relationship between δ2H and δ18O values and physicochemical characteristics was investigated. In the west of the area, the isotopic composition of the cold springs was close to that of the LMWL, while the eastern cold springs had an isotopic composition highly enriched in δ2H and δ18O. In contrast, the isotopic composition of the thermal springs was almost on that of the GMWL and their deuterium isotope was more depleted than that of cold springs. The difference between the isotopic composition of the thermal springs and the LWML can be the result of hot water–rock interaction and underground evaporation. However, magma was not effective on this difference. The results showed that the groundwater of the western cold springs moved with faster velocity through the long and deep macro-pores and preferential flow channels in carbonate and igneous rocks, while in the eastern springs, groundwater originated from fine fractures with a low depth in shale and sandstone rocks.


Bazman volcano D-excess Groundwater Isotopic enrichment 



  1. Abdel Zaher M, Saibi H, Ehara S (2012) Geochemical and stable isotopic studies of Gulf of Suez’s Hot Springs, Egypt. Chin J Geochem 31:120–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aghazadeh N, Asghari Moghadam A (2006) Evaluation of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical properties of spa springs in Sabalan region (In Persian). 10th Symposium of Geological Society of Iran, TehranGoogle Scholar
  3. Askari Malekabad F (2018) Evaluating the hydrochemistry and geothermometry of Bazman thermal springs, southeast Iran. The Dissertation of MSc. in hydrogeology. University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, IranGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagheri R, Jafari H, Bagheri F (2018) Etiology of salinity and water origin the main dilemma of Badab Sourt a unique travertine spring. Groundwater 56(5):753–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berberian M, King GCP (1981) Towards a paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran. Can J Earth Sci 18:210–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berberian F, Muir ID, Pankhurst RJ, Berberian M (1982) Late cretaceous and early Miocene Andean-type plutonic activity in northern Makran and Central Iran. J Geol Soc Lond 139:605–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boomeri M (2005) Investigation of geothermal energy sources and mineralization of Taftan volcano using stable water isotopes (in Persian). Geogr Dev Iran J 5:25–40Google Scholar
  8. Carreira PM, Do Rosario Carvalho M, Nunes JC, Grassa F, Capasso G, Marques JM (2017) Preliminary geochemical and isotopic results in thermal and coldwaters of Graciosa Volcanic Island (Azores). Procedia Earth Planet Sci 17:630–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark ID, Fritz P (1997) Environmental isotopes in hydrogeology. Lewis Publishers, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  10. Craig H (1961) Isotopic variations in meteoric waters. Science 133:1702–1703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ghadimi F, Mirzaei M, Ghomi M, Mina M (2012) Hydrochimical propertis of the thermal waters of Mahalat Abgarm Iran. GRC Trans 36:1355–1358Google Scholar
  12. Ghodsi MR, Boomeri M, Bagheri S, Ishiyama D, Corfu F (2016a) Geochemistry zircon U-Pb age and tectonic constraints on the Bazman granitoid complex southeast Iran. Turk J Earth Sci 25(4):311–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghodsi MR, Boomeri M, Bagheri S, Lentz D, Ishiyama D (2016b) Metallogeny and mineralization potential of the Bazman Granitoids SE Iran. Resour Geol 66(3):286–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gultekin F, Hatipoglu E, Firat EA (2011) Hydrogeochemistry environmental isotopes and the origin of the Hamamayagi-Ladik Thermal Spring (Samsun Turkey). Environ Earth Sci 62:1351–1360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hoefs J (2008) Stable isotope geochemistry, 7th edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  16. Jahanshahi R, Zare M (2017) Delineating the origin of groundwater in the Golgohar mine area of Iran using stable isotopes of 2H and 18O and hydrochemistry. Mine Water Environ 36(4):550–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jiang W, Wang G, Sheng Y, Shi Z, Zhang H (2019) Isotopes in groundwater (2H 18O 14C) revealed the climate and groundwater recharge in the Northern China. Sci Total Environ 666:298–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mao X, Wang Y, Zhan H, Feng L (2015) Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of geothermal springs hosted by deep-seated faults in Dongguan Basin Southern China. J Geochem Explor 158:112–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mohammadi Z, Bagheri R, Jahanshahi R (2010) Hydrogeochemistry and thermometry of Changal Thermal Springs Zagros Region Iran. Geothermics 39(3):242–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Negrel P, Ollivier P, Flehoc C, Hube D (2017) An innovative application of stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) for tracing pollutant plumes in groundwater. Sci Total Environ 578:495–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ohmoto H (1986) Stable isotope geochemistry of ore deposits. Rev Miner 16:185–225Google Scholar
  22. Piper A (1953) A graphic procedure for the geo-chemical interpretation of water analysis. USGS Groundwater (Note no. 12)Google Scholar
  23. Saadat S, Stern CR (2011) Petrochemistry and genesis of olivine basalts from small monogenetic parasitic cones of Bazman stratovolcano Makran arc southeastern Iran. Lithos 125:607–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of Sistan and BaluchestanZahedanIran
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsUniversity of Sistan and BaluchestanZahedanIran
  3. 3.Shahrood University of TechnologyShahroodIran

Personalised recommendations