Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, 78:667 | Cite as

Hydrological assessment of groundwater potential zones of Cauvery River Basin, India: a geospatial approach

  • P. ArulbalajiEmail author
  • K. Sreelash
  • K. Maya
  • D. Padmalal
Thematic Issue
  • 64 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Groundwater Resources and Sustainability

Abstract

Groundwater is one of the prime sources of freshwater in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The unsustainable abstraction of groundwater and marked changes in the climate due to natural and anthropogenic processes, over the years, have imposed immense pressure on the pristine freshwater sources. Lack of adequate information on the spatial distribution of groundwater resources and its availability to human consumption is one of the challenges before the water managers of many fast-developing economies of the world. This warrants the need for a low-cost, easily applicable and reliable technology to assess the groundwater potential of river basins—the most fundamental unit for spatial planning. Here, we report a study carried out for delineation of groundwater potential zones in the Cauvery river basin (Basin area 82,283 km2) in Peninsular India using weighted overlay method, employing a total of 12 thematic layers. Weights assigned to each class in the thematic maps are based on their characteristics and water potential capacity following the analytical hierarchical process techniques. The resultant groundwater potential values were then classified into five categories such as excellent, good, moderate, low and poor for further analysis. An overall evaluation of the results reveals that about 65% of the basin area falls under moderate groundwater potential zones and 19% under excellent to good categories. The remaining areas fall under low and poor groundwater potential zones. An inter-comparison of the observations of the present study with that of the well data and ground truth verification reveals that the method adopted herein for the delineation of groundwater potential zones is about 85% accurate and hence the people concerned can go for further high-resolution investigations including direct test methods for groundwater development planning and its sustainable utilization.

Keywords

Groundwater potential zones Weighted overlay analysis Geospatial techniques Cauvery River Basin Peninsular India 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are indebted to the Dr N. Purnachandra Rao, Director, National Centre for Earth Science Studies (NCESS), Thiruvananthapuram for encouragements and supports. We also acknowledge and thank, Geological Survey of India, Indian Meteorological Department, National Remote Sensing Centre, India and National Bureau of Soil Survey, India for the required data for the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Agarwal E, Agarwal R, Garg RD, Garg PK (2013) Delineation of groundwater potential zone: an AHP/ANP approach. J Earth Syst Sci 122:887–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed R (2018) Analyzing factors of groundwater potential and its relation with population in the Lower Barpani Watershed, Assam, India. Nat Resour Res 27(4):503–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnous MO (2016) Groundwater potentiality mapping of hard-rock terrain in arid regions using geospatial modelling: example from Wadi Feiran basin, South Sinai, Egypt. Hydrogeol J 24:1375–1392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arulbalaji P, Gurugnanam B (2016) An integrated study to assess the groundwater potential zone using geospatial tool in Salem District, South India. J Hydrogeol Hydrol Eng.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2325-9647.1000136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arulbalaji P, Padmalal D, Sreelash K (2019) GIS and AHP techniques based delineation of groundwater potential zones : a case study from Southern Western Ghats, India. Sci Rep.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38567-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balamurugan G, Seshan K, Bera S (2016) Frequency ratio model for groundwater potential mapping and its sustainable management in cold desert, India. J King Saud Univ Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beven K (1997) TOPMODEL: a critique. Hydrol Process 11:1069–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dar IA, Sankar K, Dar MA (2010) Remote sensing technology and geographic information system modeling: an integrated approach towards the mapping of groundwater potential zones in Hardrock terrain, Mamundiyar Basin. J Hydrol 394(3–4):285–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Das S (2017) Delineation of groundwater potential zone in hard rock terrain in Gangajalghati block, Bankura district, India using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Model Earth Syst Environ 3:1589–1599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Reu J, Bourgeois J, Bats M et al (2013) Application of the topographic position index to heterogeneous landscapes. Geomorphology 186:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dhar A, Sahoo S, Dey S, Sahoo M (2014) Evaluation of recharge and groundwater dynamics of a shallow alluvial aquifer in Central Ganga Basin, Kanpur (India). Nat Resour Res 23(4):409–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ewusi A, Kuma JSY (2014) Groundwater assessment for current and future water demand in the Daka Catchment, Northern Region, Ghana. Nat Resour Res 23(4):355–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Huang CC, Yeh HF, Lin HI et al (2013) Groundwater recharge and exploitative potential zone mapping using GIS and GOD techniques. Environ Earth Sci 68:267–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ibrahim-Bathis K, Ahmed SA (2016) Geospatial technology for delineating groundwater potential zones in Doddahalla watershed of Chitradurga district, India. Egypt J Remote Sens Sp Sci 19:223–234Google Scholar
  15. Jaiswal RK, Thomas T, Galkate RV et al (2014) Watershed prioritization using Saaty’s AHP based decision support for soil conservation measures. Water Resour Manag 28:475–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jaiswal RK, Ghosh NC, Galkate RV, Thomas T (2015) Multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) for watershed prioritization. Aquat Proc 4:1553–1560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jasrotia AS, Bhagat BD, Kumar A, Kumar R (2013) Remote sensing and GIS approach for delineation of groundwater potential and groundwater quality zones of Western Doon Valley, Uttarakhand, India. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 41:365–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jenness J (2006) Topographic position index. (tpi_jen.avx) Extension for ArcView 3.x, v.1.3a. Jenness EnterprisesGoogle Scholar
  19. Jha BM, Sinha SK (2009) Towards better management of ground water resources in India. Q J 24:1–20Google Scholar
  20. Kumar P, Herath S, Avtar R, Takeuchi K (2016) Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Killinochi area, Sri Lanka, using GIS and remote sensing techniques. Sustain Water Resour Manag 2:419–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lokesha N, Gopalakrishna GS, Honne Gowda H, Gupta AK (2005) Delineation of ground water potential zones in a hard rock terrain of Mysore district, Karnataka using IRS data and GIS techniques. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 33:405–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mahato S, Pal S (2018) Groundwater potential mapping in a rural river basin by union (OR) and intersection (AND) of four multi-criteria decision-making models. Nat Resour Res 28(2):523–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mandal U, Sahoo S, Munusamy SB et al (2016) Delineation of groundwater potential zones of coastal groundwater basin using multi-criteria decision making technique. Water Resour Manag 30:4293–4310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Milewski A, Sultan M, Yan E et al (2009) A remote sensing solution for estimating runoff and recharge in arid environments. J Hydrol 373:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Molinari A, Guadagnini L, Marcaccio M, Guadagnini A (2018) Geostatistical multimodel approach for the assessment of the spatial distribution of natural background concentrations in large-scale groundwater bodies. Water Res 149:522–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mukherjee S, Mukherjee S, Garg RD et al (2013) Evaluation of topographic index in relation to terrain roughness and DEM grid spacing. J Earth Syst Sci 122:869–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nag SK, Ghosh P (2013) Delineation of groundwater potential zone in Chhatna Block, Bankura District, West Bengal, India using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Environ Earth Sci 70:2115–2127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Naghibi SA, Pourghasemi HR, Pourtaghi ZS, Rezaei A (2015) Groundwater qanat potential mapping using frequency ratio and Shannon’s entropy models in the Moghan watershed, Iran. Earth Sci Informatics 8:171–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nasir MJ, Khan S, Zahid H, Khan A (2018) Delineation of groundwater potential zones using GIS and multi influence factor (MIF) techniques: a study of district Swat Khyber, Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Environ Earth Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7522-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Obi Reddy GP, Chandra Mouli K, Srivastav SK et al (2000) Evaluation of ground water potential zones using remote sensing data—a case study of Gaimukh watershed, Bhandara district, Maharashtra. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 28:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oh HJ, Kim YS, Choi JK et al (2011) GIS mapping of regional probabilistic groundwater potential in the area of Pohang City, Korea. J Hydrol 399:158–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rajaveni SP, Brindha K, Elango L (2017) Geological and geomorphological controls on groundwater occurrence in a hard rock region. Appl Water Sci 7:1377–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Riley SJ (1999) Index that quantifies topographic heterogeneity. Intermt J Sci 5:23–27Google Scholar
  34. Saaty TL (1980) The analytic hierarchy process. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Saha D, Dhar YR, Vittala SS (2010) Delineation of groundwater development potential zones in parts of marginal Ganga Alluvial Plain in South Bihar, Eastern India. Environ Monit Assess 165:179–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sahoo S, Munusamy SB, Dhar A et al (2017) Appraising the accuracy of multi-class frequency ratio and weights of evidence method for delineation of regional groundwater potential zones in canal command system. Water Resour Manag 31:4399–4413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sharma AK, Shukla JP (2015) A remote sensing and GIS based approach to evaluate the ground water prospects of Baghain watershed, Panna and Satna districts of M.P., India: a case study. J Geol Soc India 86:733–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Singh LK, Jha MK, Chowdary VM (2018) Assessing the accuracy of GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis approaches for mapping groundwater potential. Ecol Indic 91:24–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sørensen R, Zinko U, Seibert J (2006) On the calculation of the topographic wetness index: evaluation of different methods based on field observations. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 10:101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Thakur D, Bartarya SK, Nainwal HC (2018) Mapping groundwater prospect zones in an intermontane basin of the Outer Himalaya in India using GIS and remote sensing techniques. Environ Earth Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7552-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Thapa R, Gupta S, Reddy DV (2017) Application of geospatial modelling technique in delineation of fluoride contamination zones within Dwarka Basin, Birbhum, India. Geosci Front 8:1105–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. World Bank (2016) A water-secure world for all. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  43. Yeh HF, Cheng YS, Lin HI, Lee CH (2016) Mapping groundwater recharge potential zone using a GIS approach in Hualian River, Taiwan. Sustain Environ Res 26:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yero SA, Hainin MR, Yacoob H (2012) Determination of surface roughness index of various bituminous pavements. Ijrras 13:98–103Google Scholar
  45. Zobrist J, Müller SR, Ammann A et al (2000) Quality of roof runoff for groundwater infiltration. Water Res 34:1455–1462CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Arulbalaji
    • 1
    Email author
  • K. Sreelash
    • 1
  • K. Maya
    • 1
  • D. Padmalal
    • 1
  1. 1.National Centre for Earth Science StudiesThiruvananthapuramIndia

Personalised recommendations