Environmental Earth Sciences

, 78:644 | Cite as

Evaluation of the hydrochemical evolution characteristics and renewable capacity of deep fresh groundwater in the Hangzhou Bay New Zone, China

  • Yu ZhaoEmail author
  • Chaolin Wang
  • Wei Xiang
  • Shuijun Zhang
Original Article


The deep fresh groundwater in the Hangzhou Bay New Zone lies in a confined aquifer. The roof of the freshwater layer is 80–110-m deep, and its average thickness is 22 m. Freshwater occupies the downstream portion of the aquifer structure, while saline water occupies the upstream portion of the aquifer structure; this rare freshwater distribution characteristic causes widespread concern. Based on the hydrogeological conditions of the study area, the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of groundwater in the Hangzhou Bay New Zone are researched by analyzing the hydrochemical characteristics and isotope tracing results of water samples. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of the fresh groundwater and its renewal capacity are evaluated. The results show that (1) the groundwater chemical type is influenced by the total dissolved solids (TDS). With an increase in the TDS of the groundwater, the main anions in the groundwater evolve from HCO3 to Cl, and the major cations evolve from Ca2+ and Mg2+ to Na+. (2) The hydrogeological conditions, the hydrochemistry evolution characteristics, and the 2H, 18O, and 3H characteristics of the groundwater indicate that the freshwater does not receive a supplement of modern water and that no hydraulic connection exists between different layers. (3) According to 3H and 14C dating, the formation period of deep fresh groundwater and saline water in the study area was 13.0–17.9 Ka.B.P, and, 10.6–15.6 ka.B.P (the late Pleistocene), respectively. It is predicted that the fresh groundwater is the continental sedimentary water buried in the Pleistocene, as a result of sealing the well-isolated original sedimentary fresh water because of direct upstream infiltration and downstream salinization in the late transgression (mainly ice transgression in the later stage). (4) The fresh groundwater has little renewable capacity due to the absence of recharge sources.


Hydrochemistry Stable isotopes Groundwater age Groundwater evolution Isotopic tracer method 



This work was supported by the project of the China National Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 51374257 and 50804060) and the project of Evaluation of emergency groundwater sources in Ningbo coastal zone.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu Zhao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chaolin Wang
    • 1
  • Wei Xiang
    • 2
    • 3
  • Shuijun Zhang
    • 4
  1. 1.College of Civil EngineeringGuizhou UniversityGuiyangChina
  2. 2.School of Civil EngineeringChongqing UniversityChongqingChina
  3. 3.Chongqing Construction Science Research InstituteChongqingChina
  4. 4.Zhejiang Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering GeologyNingboChina

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