Response of long- to short-term changes of the Puri coastline of Odisha (India) to natural and anthropogenic factors: a remote sensing and statistical assessment

  • Manoranjan MishraEmail author
  • Pritam ChandEmail author
  • Namita Pattnaik
  • Dambaru Ballab Kattel
  • G. K. Panda
  • Manmohan Mohanti
  • Ujjal Deka Baruah
  • Surendra Kumar Chandniha
  • Subrat Achary
  • Tapan Mohanty
Original Article


The coastal regions of India are densely populated and most biological productive ecosystems which are threatened by erosion, natural disaster, and anthropogenic interferences. These threats have made priority in appraisal of shoreline dynamicity as part of sustainable management of coastal zones. The present study assessed the long- to short-term dynamicity of shoreline positions along the coast of Puri district, Odisha, India, during the past 25 years (1990–2015) using open-source multi-temporal satellite images (Landsat TM, ETM + , and OLI) and statistical-based methods (endpoint rate, linear regression rate and weighted linear regression). The long-term assessment during 1990–2015 shows that shoreline accredited at the rate of 0.3 m a−1 with estimated mean accretion and erosional rate of 1.18 m a−1 and 0.64 m a−1, respectively. A significant trend of coastal erosion is primarily observed on the northern side of Puri district coast. A cyclic pattern of accretion (during 1990–1995 and 2000–2004) and erosion (during 1995–2000 and 2009–2015) was observed during the assessment of short-term shoreline change. It exhibited significant correlation with the landfall of severe cyclones and identified cyclic phases after severe cyclonic storms, i.e., phase of erosion, phase of accretion and phase of stabilization. Overall, the natural processes specifically the landfall of tropical cyclones and anthropogenic activities such as the construction of coastal structures, encroachment and recent construction in the coastal regulatory zone, and construction of dams in upper catchment areas are the major factors accountable for shoreline changes. The output of the research undertaken is not only crucial for monitoring the dynamism of coastal ecosystem boundaries but to enable long- to short-term coastal zone management planning in response to recently reported high erosion along the Puri coast. Moreover, the usage of open-source satellite imageries and statistical-based method provides an opportunity in developing cost-effective spatial data infrastructure for shoreline monitoring and vulnerability mapping along the coastal region.


Shoreline changes Long- to short-term changes Endpoint rate (EPR) Linear regression rate (LRR) Weighted linear regression (WLR) Remote sensing 



We are thankful to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) for providing Landsat and multi-satellite high resolution (used in Fig. 12) data free of cost for this research. Pritam Chand  is grateful to Director, National Institute of Hydrology (NIH) and Head, WRSD, NIH, Roorkee (India), for providing facilities and ample support to carry out this work.


  1. Alesheikh AA, Ghorbanali A, Nouri N (2007) Coastline change detection using remote sensing. Int J Environ Sci Technol 4:61–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anfuso G, Pranzini E, Vitale G (2011) An integrated approach to coastal erosion problems in northern Tuscany (Italy): littoral morphological evolution and cell distribution. Geomorphology 129:204–214. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bahinipati CS (2014) Assessment of vulnerability to cyclones and floods in Odisha, India: a district-level analysis. Curr Sci 107:1997–2007Google Scholar
  4. Bastia F, Equeenuddin SM (2016) Spatio-temporal variation of water flow and sediment discharge in the Mahanadi River, India. Glob Planet Change 144:51–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker M, Meyssignac B, Letetrel C et al (2012) Sea level variations at tropical Pacific islands since 1950. Glob Planet Change 80–81:85–98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Behera S, Mohanta R, Kar C, Mishra S (2014) Impacts of the super cyclone Philine on sea turtle nesting habitats at the Rushikulya Rookery, Ganjam Coast, India. Poult Fish Wildl Sci 2:1–5. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boak EH, Turner IL (2005) Shoreline definition and detection: a review. J Coast Res 214:688–703. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Census of India (2011) Primary census abstract data highlights—India. Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  9. CGWB (2013) Ground water information booklet. Puri District, OrrisaGoogle Scholar
  10. Chand P, Acharya P (2010) Shoreline change and sea level rise along the coast of Bitharkanika wildlife sanctuary, Orissa: an analytical approach of remote sensing and statistical techniques. Int J Geomatics Geosci 3:436–455Google Scholar
  11. Chiang CM (1992) The applied dynamics of ocean surface waves. Advanced Series on Ocean Engineering, Vol 1. World Scientiic Publisher, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  12. Church JA (2011) Revisiting the Earth’s sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008. Geophys Res Lett 38:L18601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davenport J, Davenport JL (2006) The impact of tourism and personal leisure transport on coastal environments: a review. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 67:280–292. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dean RG, Dalrymple RA (2004) Coastal processes with engineering applications. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  15. Del Río L, Gracia FJ (2013) Error determination in the photogrammetric assessment of shoreline changes. Nat Hazards 65:2385–2397. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dolan R, Fenster MS, Holme SJ (1991) Temporal analysis of shoreline recession and accretion. J Coast Res 7:723–744. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Douglas BC, Crowell M, Leatherman SP (1998) Considerations for shoreline position prediction. J Coast Res 14:1025–1033Google Scholar
  18. El-Asmar HM, Taha MMN, El-Sorogy AS (2016) Morphodynamic changes as an impact of human intervention at the Ras El-Bar-Damietta Harbor coast, NW Damietta Promontory, Nile Delta, Egypt. J Afr Earth Sci 124:323–339. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Feyisa GL, Meilby H, Fensholt R, Proud SR (2014) Automated water extraction index: a new technique for surface water mapping using Landsat imagery. Remote Sens Environ 140:23–35. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frazier PS, Page KJ (2000) Water body detection and delineation with Landsat TM data. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 66:1461–1467Google Scholar
  21. García-Rubio G, Huntley D, Russell P (2015) Evaluating shoreline identification using optical satellite images. Mar Geol 359:96–105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Genz AS, Fletcher CH, Dunn RA et al (2007) The predictive accuracy of shoreline change rate methods and alongshore beach variation on Maui, Hawaii. J Coast Res 231:87–105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gibbs AE, Richmond BM (2015) National assessment of shoreline change—historical shoreline change along the north coast of Alaska. US-Canadian border to Icy Cape, Alaska, US Geological Survey, Open-File Report 2015–1030. Available Online:
  24. Gibbs AE, Ohman KA, Coppersmith R, Richmond BM (2017) National assessment of shoreline change: a GIS compilation of updated vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the north coast of Alaska. US Canadian border to Icy Cape, AlaskaGoogle Scholar
  25. Hapke CJ, Himmelstoss EA, Kratzmann M et al (2010) National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts. US Geological Survey, Open-file Report 2010–1118. Available online:
  26. Hilton MJ (1994) Applying the principle of sustainability to coastal sand mining: the case of Pakiri-Mangawhai Beach, New Zealand. Environ Manag 18:815–829. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. India-WRIS (2014) Water Resources Information of India.
  28. Jana A, Maiti S, Biswas A (2016) Analysis of short-term shoreline oscillations along Midnapur-Balasore Coast, Bay of Bengal, India: a study based on geospatial technology. Model Earth Syst Environ 2:64. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jangir B, Satyanarayana ANV, Swati S et al (2016) Delineation of spatio-temporal changes of shoreline and geomorphological features of Odisha coast of India using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Nat Hazards 82:1437–1455. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ji L, Zhang L, Wylie B (2009) Analysis of dynamic thresholds for the normalized difference water index. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 75:1307–1317. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jiang Z, Qi J, Su S et al (2012) Water body delineation using index composition and HIS transformation. Int J Remote Sens 33:3402–3421. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jiang H, Feng M, Zhu Y et al (2014) An automated method for extracting rivers and lakes from Landsat imagery. Remote Sens 6:5067–5089. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Joseph PV, Bindu G, Preethi B (2016) Impact of the upper tropospheric cooling trend over Central Asia on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall and the Bay of Bengal cyclone tracks. Curr Sci 110:2105–2113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jutla A, Akanda AS, Huq A et al (2013) A water marker monitored by satellites to predict seasonal endemic cholera. Remote Sens Lett 4:822–831. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kankara RS, Selvan SC, Markose VJ et al (2015) Estimation of long and short term shoreline changes along Andhra Pradesh coast using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Procedia Eng 116:855–862. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kendall MG (1970) Rank correlation methods, 4th edn. Charles Griffin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Kumar PKD (2001) Monthly mean sea level variations at Cochin, southwest coast of India. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 27:209–214Google Scholar
  38. Kumar A, Narayana AC, Jayappa KS (2010) Shoreline changes and morphology of spits along southern Karnataka, west coast of India: a remote sensing and statistics-based approach. Geomorphology 120:133–152. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kunte PD, Wagle BG (1991) Spit evolution and shore drift direction along south Karnataka coast, India. G di Geol 53:71–80Google Scholar
  40. Lal NK, Siawal A, Kaul AK (2009) Evolution of east coast of India—a plate tectonic reconstruction. J Geol Soc India 73:249–260. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lu D, Weng Q (2007) A survey of image classification methods and techniques for improving classification performance. Int J Remote Sens 28:823–870. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mahalik NK, Das C, Maejima W (1996) Geomorphology and evolution of the Mahanadi Delta, India. J Geosci 39:111–122Google Scholar
  43. Maiti S, Bhattacharya AK (2009) Shoreline change analysis and its application to prediction: a remote sensing and statistics based approach. Mar Geol 257:11–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mann HB (1945) Nonparametric tests against trend. Econometrica 13:245. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Markose VJ, Rajan B, Kankara RS et al (2016) Quantitative analysis of temporal variations on shoreline change pattern along Ganjam district, Odisha, east coast of India. Environ Earth Sci 75:929. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Martin SS, Hough SE (2015) The 21 May 2014 Mw 5.9 Bay of Bengal earthquake: macroseismic data suggest a high-stress-drop event. Seismol Res Lett 86:369–377. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McFEETERS SK (1996) The use of the normalized difference water index (NDWI) in the delineation of open water features. Int J Remote Sens 17:1425–1432. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McLachlan A (1996) Physical factors in benthic ecology:effects of changing sand particle size on beach fauna. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 131:205–217. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mishra P, Patra SK, Ramana Murthy MV et al (2011) Interaction of monsoonal wave, current and tide near Gopalpur, east coast of India, and their impact on beach profile: a case study. Nat Hazards 59:1145–1159. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mishra P, Pradhan UK, Panda US et al (2014) Field measurements and numerical modeling of nearshore processes at an open coast port on the east coast of India. Indian J Geo Mar Sci 43:1272–1280Google Scholar
  51. Mohanti M, Swain MR (2005) Mahanadi river delta, east coast of india: an overview on evolution and dynamic processes. Department of Geology, Utakal university, Vani vihar, [Online] Available
  52. Moore LJ (2000) Shoreline mapping techniques. J Coast Res 16:111–124Google Scholar
  53. Morton RA, Miller TL (2005) National assessment of shoreline change: part 2, historical shoreline changes and associated coastal land loss along the US Southeast Atlantic Coast. US Geological Survey, Open-File Report 2005–1401. Available online:
  54. Mujabar PS, Chandrasekar N (2013) Shoreline change analysis along the coast between Kanyakumari and Tuticorin of India using remote sensing and GIS. Arab J Geosci 6:647–664. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mukhopadhyay A, Mukherjee S, Mukherjee S et al (2012) Automatic shoreline detection and future prediction: a case study on Puri Coast, Bay of Bengal, India. Eur J Remote Sens 45:201–213. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Murali RM, Shrivastava D, Vethamony P (2009) Monitoring shoreline environment of Paradip, east coast of India using remote sensing. Curr Sci 97:79–84Google Scholar
  57. Murali RM, Dhiman R, Choudhary R et al (2015) Decadal shoreline assessment using remote sensing along the central Odisha coast, India. Environ Earth Sci 74:7201–7213. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Narayana AC, Priju CP (2006) Landform and shoreline changes inferred from satellite images along the central Kerala coast. J Geol Soc India 68:35–49Google Scholar
  59. Nayak S (2002) Use of satellite data in coastal mapping. Res Indian Cartogr 22:147–156Google Scholar
  60. Nayak S (2017) Coastal zone management in India − present status and future needs. Geo-spatial Inf Sci 20(2):174–183. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nordstrom KF (2000) Beaches and dunes of developed coasts. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Otukei JR, Blaschke T (2010) Land cover change assessment using decision trees, support vector machines and maximum likelihood classification algorithms. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 12:S27–S31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pradhan S, Mishra SK, Baral R et al (2017) Alongshore Sediment transport near tidal inlets of Chilika Lagoon; East Coast of India. Mar Geodesy 40:187–203. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rajasree BR, Deo MC, Sheela Nair L (2016) Effect of climate change on shoreline shifts at a straight and continuous coast. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 183:221–234. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rajawat AS, Chauhan HB, Ratheesh R et al (2015) Assessment of coastal erosion along the Indian coast on 1: 25,000 scale using satellite data of time frames. Curr Sci 109:347–353Google Scholar
  66. Rajesh G, Joseph J, Harikrishnan M, Premkumar K (2005) Observations on extreme meteorological and oceanographic parameters in Indian seas. Curr Sci 88:1279–1282Google Scholar
  67. Ramesh R, Ramachandran P, Vel AS (2011) National Assessment of shoreline change: Odisha Coast. India. NCSCM/MoEF Report 2011–01.
  68. Rao KN, Subraelu P, Kumar KCVN et al (2010) Impacts of sediment retention by dams on delta shoreline recession: evidences from the Krishna and Godavari deltas. India. Earth Surf Process Landf. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rao GS, Radhakrishna M, Murthy KSR (2015) A seismotectonic study of the 21 May 2014 Bay of Bengal intraplate earthquake: evidence of onshore-offshore tectonic linkage and fracture zone reactivation in the northern Bay of Bengal. Nat Hazards 78:895–913. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ritchie JC, Cooper CM, Schiebe FR (1990) The relationship of MSS and TM digital data with suspended sediments, chlorophyll, and temperature in Moon Lake, Mississippi. Remote Sens Environ 33:137–148. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rokni K, Ahmad A, Selamat A, Hazini S (2014) Water feature extraction and change detection using multitemporal Landsat imagery. Remote Sens 6:4173–4189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rundquist DC, Lawson MP, Queen LP, Cerveny RS (1987) The relationship between summer-season rainfall events and lake-surface area. J Am Water Resour Assoc 23:493–508. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sahoo B, Bhaskaran PK (2015) Synthesis of tropical cyclone tracks in a risk evaluation perspective for the east coast of India. Aquat Procedia 4:389–396. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sahoo B, Bhaskaran PK (2018) A comprehensive data set for tropical cyclone storm surge-induced inundation for the east coast of India. Int J Climatol 38:403–419. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sanderson PG, Eliot I (1999) Compartmentalisation of beachface sediments along the southwestern coast of Australia. Mar Geol 162:145–164. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sastri VV, Raju ATR, Sinha RN, Venkatachala BS (1974) Evolution of Mesozoic sedimentary basins on the east coast of India. Aust Pet Explor Assoc J 14:29–41Google Scholar
  77. Scapini F (2002) Baseline research for the integrated sustainable management of Mediterranean sensitive coastal ecosystems. A manual for coastal managers, scientists and all those studying coastal processes and management in the Mediterranean. Istituto Agronomico per l'Oltremare, Società Editrice Fiorentina, Firenze.
  78. Scott DB (2005) Coastal changes, rapid. In: Schwartz M (ed) Encyclopedia of coastal science. Springer, Netherlands, pp 253–255Google Scholar
  79. Sesli FA, Karsli F, Colkesen I, Akyol N (2009) Monitoring the changing position of coastlines using aerial and satellite image data: an example from the eastern coast of Trabzon, Turkey. Environ Monit Assess 153:391–403. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Shen L, Li C (2010) Water body extraction from Landsat ETM + imagery using adaboost algorithm. In: 2010 18th International Conference on Geoinformatics. IEEE, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  81. Sirisha P, Remya PG, Nair TMB, Rao BV (2015) Numerical simulation and observations of very severe cyclone generated surface wave fields in the north Indian Ocean. J Earth Syst Sci 124:1639–1651. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. The Telegraph (2016) IIT team inspects sea erosion. Telegr.
  83. Thieler ER, Himmelstoss EA, Zichichi JL, Ergul A (2009) The digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS) version 4.0—an ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change. Open-File Report. US Geological Survey Report No. 2008–1278.
  84. Tirkey N, Biradar RS, Pikle M, Charatkar S (2005) A study on shoreline changes of Mumbai coast using remote sensing and GIS. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 33:85–91. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tran Thi V, Tien A, Xuan T et al (2014) Application of remote sensing and GIS for detection of long-term mangrove shoreline changes in Mui Ca Mau, Vietnam. Biogeosciences 11:3781–3795. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. van der Wal D, Pye K, Neal A (2002) Long-term morphological change in the Ribble Estuary, northwest England. Mar Geol 189:249–266. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vanderstraete T, Goossens R, Ghabour TK (2006) The use of multi-temporal Landsat images for the change detection of the coastal zone near Hurghada, Egypt. Int J Remote Sens 27:3645–3655. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Weatherall P, Marks KM, Jakobsson M et al (2015) A new digital bathymetric model of the world’s oceans. Earth Space Sci 2:331–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. White K, El Asmar HM (1999) Monitoring changing position of coastlines using Thematic Mapper imagery, an example from the Nile Delta. Geomorphology 29:93–105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wiegel RL (1964) Oceanographical engineering. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  91. Wilson EH, Sader SA (2002) Detection of forest harvest type using multiple dates of Landsat TM imagery. Remote Sens Environ 80:385–396. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Woodcock CE, Allen R, Anderson M et al (2008) Free access to Landsat imagery. Science 320:1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Work PA, Otay EN (1997) Coastal Engineering 1996: influence of nearshore berm on beach nourishment. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp 3722–3735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Xu H (2006) Modification of normalised difference water index (NDWI) to enhance open water features in remotely sensed imagery. Int J Remote Sens 27:3025–3033. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Zuzek PJ, Nairn RB, Thieme SJ (2003) Spatial and temporal considerations for calculating shoreline change rates in the Great Lakes Basin. J Coast Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manoranjan Mishra
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pritam Chand
    • 2
    Email author
  • Namita Pattnaik
    • 3
  • Dambaru Ballab Kattel
    • 4
  • G. K. Panda
    • 5
  • Manmohan Mohanti
    • 6
  • Ujjal Deka Baruah
    • 7
  • Surendra Kumar Chandniha
    • 8
  • Subrat Achary
    • 9
  • Tapan Mohanty
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Natural Resources Management and Geo-informaticsKhallikote UniversitySambalpurIndia
  2. 2.Water Resources Systems DivisionNational Institute of HydrologyRoorkeeIndia
  3. 3.Department of GeographyGangadhar Meher UniversitySambalpurIndia
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Process, Institute of Tibetan Plateau ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.Department of GeographyUtkal UniversityBhubaneswarIndia
  6. 6.Department of GeologyUtkal UniversityBhubaneswarIndia
  7. 7.Department of GeographyGauhati UniversityGuwahatiIndia
  8. 8.BRSM College of Agricultural Engineering and TechnologyIndira Gandhi Krishi VishwavidyalayaRaipurIndia
  9. 9.OFSDPBhubaneswarIndia

Personalised recommendations