Sea surficial waves as a driving force that enhances the fresh shallow coastal groundwater flux into the oceans

  • Yaser NikpeymanEmail author
  • Takahiro Hosono
  • Masahiko Ono
  • Heejun Yang
  • Kimpei Ichiyanagi
  • Jun Shimada
  • Kiyoshi Takikawa
Original Article


Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a process through which groundwater and solutes are transferred from coastal aquifers into the oceans. Generally, the SGD is composed of two basic components: (1) fresh groundwater, FSGD; and (2) recirculated seawater, RSGD. Radon, a naturally occurring geochemical tracer, is a useful tool to evaluate the SGD in coastal areas. This study aims to evaluate the impact of wind waves on each components of submarine groundwater discharge. We monitored temporal fluctuations of seawater 222Rn concentration at Shiranui and Minamata bays, where elevated seawater 222Rn concentration spatial distribution observed during our previous studies. The measurements were conducted in coastal seawater where the connected coastal aquifer water table is very shallow. Additionally, a seawater model was applied to evaluate the seawater 222Rn concentration that originates from rivers in the study area. The 222Rn inventory in the study area implies that the groundwater advection is one of the major sources of 222Rn in the seawater. The obtained dataset suggests that the seawater 222Rn concentration increases, but the salinity decreases during windy periods. This means that more fresh groundwater contributes to dilute the recirculated seawater (RSGD) during windy conditions. Therefore, when the sea is windy and seawater waves propagate onshore, the fresh groundwater flux may increase where shallow coastal aquifers exist.


Submarine groundwater discharge SGD 222Rn Wind Yatsushiro Sea 


Supplementary material

12665_2019_8258_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (43 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 43 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Minerals and Groundwater Resources, School of Earth SciencesShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Earth Sciences, GSSTKumamoto UniversityKumamotoJapan
  3. 3.Priority Organization for Innovation and ExcellenceKumamoto UniversityKumamotoJapan
  4. 4.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)TsukubaJapan
  5. 5.Center for Marine Environment StudiesKumamoto UniversityKumamotoJapan

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