Advertisement

X-ray computed tomography characterization of soil and rock mixture under cyclic triaxial testing: the effects of confining pressure on meso-structural changes

  • Y. WangEmail author
  • D. Zhang
  • Y. Z. Hu
Original Article
  • 78 Downloads

Abstract

The mechanical meso-damage mechanism of soil and rock mixture (SRM) subjected to cyclic loading is very significant to evaluate the stability of construction and building structures composed of SRM. However, to date, few experiments have been done to investigate the physical mesoscopic damage evolution in SRM. In this work, cyclic triaxial tests were conducted on soil and rock mixture samples with rock block percentage of 40%, under confining pressures (CPs) of 60 kPa, 120 kPa, and 200 kPa using in situ X-ray computed tomography technique. The effects of confining pressure on the meso-structural changes have been visualized and investigated by CT image analysis. For the SRM samples, hysteresis loop on the cyclic stress–strain curves presents different pattern that is caused by the differential applied CP. The hysteresis loop area first decreased and then increased with plastic deformation increasing for samples under a CP of 60 kPa and 120 kPa; however, it shows monotonously decreasing trend under a CP of 200 kPa. In addition, after extracting cracks from the original CT images, it shows that the damage initiation moment of SRM is different even though with the same stress amplitude. The crack geometric parameters, however, decreased under larger confining pressure mainly due to the restriction of rock block movement. The stress dilatancy characteristics of SRM under various CPs also presented different trend from the volumetric change analysis on the CT images. The interlocking among rock blocks restricts the development of localized bands under high CP, and the ability to resist cyclic damage improves with the increase of CP.

Keywords

Confining pressure Cyclic loading X-ray CT Meso-structural change Soil and rock mixture (SRM) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the editors and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments. This work was supported by the National key technologies Research & Development program (2018YFC0808402, 2018YFC0604601), the State Key Laboratory for GeoMechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology (SKLGDUEK1824), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2302017FRF-TP-17-027A1), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 41502294).

References

  1. Anhdan L, Koseki J (2004) Effects of large number of cyclic loading on deformation characteristics of dense granular materials. Soils Found 44(3):115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brennan AJ, Thusyanthan NI, Madabhushi SPG (2005) Evaluation of shear modulus and damping in dynamic centrifuge tests. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 131:1488–1497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cnudde V, Boone MN (2013) High-resolution X-ray computed tomography in geosciences: a review of the current technology and applications. Earth Sci Rev 123:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coli N, Berry P, Boldini D (2011) In situ non-conventional shear tests for the mechanical characterisation of a bimrock. Int J Rock Mech Min 48:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Diaz M, Kim KY, Yeom S, Zhuang L, Park S, Min KB (2017) Surface roughness characterization of open and closed rock joints in deep cores using X-ray computed tomography. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 98:10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Higo Y, Oka F, Sato T, Matsushima Y, Kimoto S (2013) Investigation of localized deformation in partially saturated sand under triaxial compression using microfocus X-ray CT with digital image correlation. Soils Found 53(2):181–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hirono T, Takahashi M, Nakashima S (2003) In situ visualization of fluid flow image within deformed rock by X-ray CT. Eng Geol 70(1):37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hounsfield GN (1972) A Method of and Apparatus for Examination of a Body by Radiation Such as X-ray or Gamma Radiation. British Patent Number GB1283915. The Patent Office, London, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  9. Kahraman S, Alber M (2006) Estimating unconfined compressive strength and elastic modulus of a fault breccia mixture of weak blocks and strong matrix. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 43(8):1277–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kahraman S, Alber M (2008) Triaxial strength of a fault breccia of weak rocks in a strong matrix. Bull Eng Geol Environ 67(3):435–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kahraman S, Gunaydin O, Alber M, Fener M (2009) Evaluating the strength and deformability properties of Misis fault breccia using artificial neural networks. Expert Syst Appl 36(3):6874–6878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kalender A, Sonmez H, Medley E, Tunusluoglu C, Kasapoglu KE (2014) An approach to predicting the overall strengths of unwelded bimrocks and bimsoils. Eng Geol 183:65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kong X, Liu J, Zou D, Liu H (2016) Stress–dilatancy relationship of Zipingpu gravel under cyclic loading in triaxial stress states. Int J Geomech 16(4):04016001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar SS, Krishna AM, Dey A (2017) Evaluation of dynamic properties of sandy soil at high cyclic strains. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 99:157–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lamas-Lopez F (2016) Field and laboratory investigation on the dynamic behavior of conventional railway track-bed materials in the context of traffic upgrade. Ph.D. thesis, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, Universite Paris-EstGoogle Scholar
  16. Lenoir N, Bornert M, Desrues J, Bésuelle P, Viggiani G (2007) Volumetric digital image correlation applied to X-ray microtomography images from triaxial compression tests on argillaceous rock. Strain 43(3):193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lindquist ES, Goodman RE (1994) The strength and deformation properties of a physical model mélange. In: Nelson PP, Laubach SE (eds) Proc. 1st North America Rock Mech. Symposium. Austin, Texas, pp 843–850Google Scholar
  18. Maqbool S, Koseki J (2010) Large-scale triaxial tests to study effects of compaction energy and large cyclic loading history on shear behavior of gravel. Soils Found 50(5):633–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Medley E, Lindquist ES (1995) The engineering significance of the scale-independence of some Franciscan Melanges in California, USA. In: Daemen JK, Schultz RA (eds) Proceedings of the 35th US rock mechanics symposium. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 907–914Google Scholar
  20. Menq FY (2003) Dynamic properties of sandy and gravelly soils. Ph.D. thesis, The University of Texas at AustinGoogle Scholar
  21. MWRPRC (Ministry of Water Resources of the People’s Republic of China) (1999) GB/T 50123-1999: standard for soil test method. MWRPRC, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  22. Rücknagel J, Götze P, Hofmann B, Christen O (2013) The influence of soil gravel content on compaction behavior and pre-compression stress. Geoderma 209:226–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sakellariou A, Arns CH, Sheppard AP, Sok RM, Averdunk H, Limaye A, Jones AC, Senden TJ, Knackstedt MA (2007) Developing a virtual materials laboratory. Mater Today 10:44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sarkar G, Siddiqua S (2016) Effect of fluid chemistry on the microstructure of light backfill: an X-ray CT investigation. Eng Geol 202:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Slatalla N, Alber M, Kahraman S (2010) Analyses of acoustic emission response of a fault breccia in uniaxial deformation. Bull Eng Geol Environ 69(3):455–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sonmez H, Tunusluoğlu C (2010) Development of a unified geomechanical classification system and a generalized empirical approach for jointed rock masses and bimrocks. TUBİTAK Project No.: 108Y002 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  27. Suiker AS, Selig ET, Frenkel R (2005) Static and cyclic triaxial testing of ballast and subballast. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 131(6):771–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sun QD, Indraratna B, Nimbalkar S (2014) Effect of cyclic loading frequency on the permanent deformation and degradation of railway ballast. Géotechnique 64(9):746–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang Y, Li X, Zhang B, Wu YF (2014) Meso-damage cracking characteristics analysis for rock and soil aggregate with CT test. Sci China Technol Sci 57(7):1361–1371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang Y, Li X, Wu YF (2015a) Damage evolution analysis of SRM under compression using X-ray tomography and numerical simulation. Eur J Environ Civ Eng 19(4):400–417.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19648189.2014.945044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang Y, Li X, Zheng B, Zhang B, Wang JB (2015b) Real-time ultrasonic experiments and mechanical properties of soil and rock mixture during triaxial deformation. Geotech Lett 5(4):281–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang Y, Li X, Hu RL, Li SD, Wang JY (2015c) Experimental study of the ultrasonic and mechanical properties of SRM under compressive loading. Environ Earth Sci 74(6):5023–5037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang Y, Li X, Zheng B, He JM, Li SD (2016) Macro-meso failure mechanism of soil–rock mixture at medium strain rates. Geotech Lett 6:235–243Google Scholar
  34. Wang HL, Cui YJ, Lamas-Lopez F, Dupla JC, Canou J, Calon N, Chen RP (2017a) Effects of inclusion contents on resilient modulus and damping ratio of unsaturated track-bed materials. Can Geotech J 54(12):1672–1681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang Y, Li C, Hu Y, Xiao Y (2017b) Optimization of multiple seepage piping parameters to maximize the critical hydraulic gradient in bimsoils. Water 9(10):787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang Y, Li X, Zheng B (2017c) Stress–strain behavior of soil–rock mixture at medium strain rates-response to seismic dynamic loading. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 93:7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang Y, Li CH, Hu YZ (2018) Use of X-ray computed tomography to investigate the effect of rock blocks on meso-structural changes in soil-rock mixture under triaxial deformation. Constr Build Mater 164:386–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Xia JG, Hu RL, Gao W (2017) Research on large-scale triaxial shear testing of soil rock mixtures containing oversized particles. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 36(08):2031–2039Google Scholar
  39. Xu WJ, Hu RL (2008) Field horizontal push shear test for mechanical property of soil-rock mixture under cyclic loading. J Eng Geol 16(1):63–70Google Scholar
  40. Yongbo F, Adewuyi OI, Chun F (2015) Strength characteristics of soil rock mixture under equal stress and cyclic loading conditions. Geosyst Eng 18(1):73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil and Resource EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and GeophysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations