Development of water turbidity index (WTI) and seasonal characteristics of total suspended matter (TSM) spatial distribution in Ichkeul Lake, a shallow brackish wetland, Northern-East Tunisia

  • Hajer OuniEmail author
  • Atsushi Kawachi
  • Mitsuteru Irie
  • Nabiha Ben M’Barek
  • Nejla Hariga-Tlatli
  • Jamila Tarhouni
Thematic Issue
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Climate Effects on Water Resources


The decrease of fresh water supply from connected rivers induces the reverse of gravity flow from Bizert Lagoon which increases the salinity and the total suspended matter (TSM). Therefore, multi-date MODIS images were analyzed by GIS to calculate and identify the spatial distribution of WTI, TSM indicator. Then, the relationship between wind conditions and TSM’s resuspension in Ichkeul Lake was clarified. After that, the cluster analysis and the temporal fluctuation of daily wind speed; rainfall, and the Potamogeton pectinatus phenology were used to interpret the seasonal distribution of the turbid water. Consequently, the linear correlation between WTI and observed data was found (R2 = 0.66; r = 0.809) and proved by ANOVA test, where P = 0.00143 (< α = 0.05). Besides, the prevailing effects of winds on turbidity were detected, where the daily mean value of WTI was positively correlated with daily wind speed with r = 0.63 and r = 0.65, respectively, for P1 and P2. Thus, the turbidity increases with the increase of wind velocity. Subsequently, wind speed threshold was chosen to be 2.8 m/s. Moreover, the frequent wind with velocity varied between 5 and 7 m/s and may exceed the 9 m/s blew from the WNW direction. Added to this, the seasonal distribution of WTI revealed that the most and moderate turbid days were detected frequently in summer season. Following the prevailing wind direction, the TSM was distributed from the center of the SSE part of Ichkeul Lake.


MODIS imagery Ichkeul Lake Turbidity TSM WTI Wind speed 



This work was carried out within the Alliance for Research on North Africa (ARENA) framework between the National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia, INAT, Tunisia and Tsukuba University, Japan (JASSO: Japan Student Services Organization, exchange student program, 11 months) and the cooperation with ANPE (National Agency for Environment Protection).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hajer Ouni
    • 1
    Email author
  • Atsushi Kawachi
    • 2
  • Mitsuteru Irie
    • 3
  • Nabiha Ben M’Barek
    • 4
  • Nejla Hariga-Tlatli
    • 1
    • 5
  • Jamila Tarhouni
    • 1
  1. 1.Université de Carthage, Institut National Agronomique de Tunis (INAT), Laboratoire de Recherche, Sciences et Technologies des Eaux (LRSTE)TunisTunisia
  2. 2.Environmental and Ecological Hydraulics, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences/Doctoral Program in Sustainable Environmental Studies and ARENA (Alliance for Research on North Africa)University of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of MiyazakiMiyazaki-shiJapan
  4. 4.Agence Nationale de Protection de l’Environement (ANPE)TunisTunisia
  5. 5.Université de Tunis El-Manar, Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Tunis (ENIT), Laboratoire de Modélisation Mathématique et Numérique dans les Sciences de l’Ingénieur (LAMSIN)TunisTunisia

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