Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, 78:122 | Cite as

A case study on the height of a water-flow fracture zone above undersea mining: Sanshandao Gold Mine, China

  • Ying Chen
  • Guoyan Zhao
  • Shaofeng WangEmail author
  • Hao Wu
  • Shaowei Wang
Thematic Issue
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Environmental Earth Sciences on Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering

Abstract

In undersea gold mines, the development of a water-flow fracture zone and its connection with the aquifer may cause massive water and sand inrush disasters. In this study, approaches including theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and field detection are employed to identify the development height of the water-flow fracture zone caused by undersea mining in the Xinli Zone of the Sanshandao Gold Mine to ensure mining safety. An improved Winkler elastic foundation beam model, considering the coupled influences of seawater pressure and backfill support, was established to calculate the height of the water-flow fracture zone. The result demonstrates that the height of the water-flow fracture zone depends on the elastic modulus of the overburden strata and the compression modulus of the filling material. Then, an experimental study utilizing a custom-made apparatus is conducted to obtain the Winkler foundation compression characteristics of the filling material used in the gold mining operation. The theoretical analyses are confirmed by numerical simulations and show that the height of the water-flow fracture zone decreases with the increase in mining level because the loads from overburden weight decreases with the mining depth. The theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and field detection present that the height of the mining-induced water-flow fracture zone is 39 m, 37 m, and 40.5–45 m, respectively, after mining at the − 135 m level. These values are reasonably consistent, suggesting that the proposed theoretical and numerical models and the utilized field detection method can provide valuable information for determining the overburden stability of an undersea mineral seam and improving mining safety.

Keywords

Undersea mining Winkle foundation model Compression modulus Water-flow fracture zone UDEC Digital borehole camera 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The project is sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51774321 and 51804163) and the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC0604606). The authors would like to thank those at the Sanshandao Gold Mine who provided considerable support during field detection and data collection.

References

  1. Adhikary DP, Guo H (2014) Measurement of longwall mining induced strata permeability. Geotech Geol Eng 32:617–626.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-014-9737-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Booth CJ (2006) Groundwater as an environmental constraint of longwall coal mining. Environ Geol 49:796–803.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-006-0173-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Booth CJ, Bertsch LP (2002) Groundwater geochemistry in shallow aquifers above longwall mines in Illinois, USA. Hydrogeol J 7:561–575.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s100400050229 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cao Y-B, Feng X-T, Yan EC, Chen G, Lü F-f, Ji H-b, Song K-Y (2015) Calculation method and distribution characteristics of fracture hydraulic aperture from field experiments in fractured granite area. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49:1629–1647.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-015-0881-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cherubini C (2008) A modeling approach for the study of contamination in a fractured aquifer. Geotech Geol Eng 26:519–533.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-008-9186-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Feldman WC, Head JW, Maurice S, Prettyman T, Elphic RC, Funsten HO, Lawrence DJ, Tokar R, Vaniman D (2004) Recharge mechanism of near-equatorial hydrogen on Mars: Atmospheric redistribution or sub-surface aquifer. Geophys Res Lett 6225(18):355–366.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004gl020661 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ghavanloo E, Daneshmand F, Rafiei M (2010) Vibration and instability analysis of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid and resting on a linear viscoelastic Winkler foundation. Phys E 42:2218–2224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physe.2010.04.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Guo J, Luo B, Lu C, Lai J, Ren J (2017) Numerical investigation of hydraulic fracture propagation in a layered reservoir using the cohesive zone method. Eng Fract Mech.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfracmech.2017.10.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hu XJ, Li WP, Cao DT, Liu MC (2012) Index of multiple factors and expected height of fully mechanized water flowing fractured zone. J China Coal Soc 37:613–620(618)Google Scholar
  10. Huang L, Hao H, Li X, Li J (2018a) Source identification of microseismic events in underground mines with interferometric imaging and cross wavelet transform. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 71:318–328.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2017.08.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Huang L, Li J, Hao H, Li X (2018b) Micro-seismic event detection and location in underground mines by using convolutional neural networks (CNN) and deep learning. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 81:265–276.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2018.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jehring MM, Bareither CA (2016) Tailings composition effects on shear strength behavior of co-mixed mine waste rock and tailings. Acta Geotechnica 11(5):1147–1166.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11440-015-0429-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu X, Tan Y, Ning J, Tian C, Wang J (2015) The Height of Water-Conducting Fractured Zones in Longwall Mining of Shallow Coal Seams. Geotech Geol Eng 33:693–700.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-015-9851-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Palchik V (2003) Formation of fractured zones in overburden due to longwall mining. Environ Geol 44:28–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Peng K, Li X-b, Wan C-c, Peng S-q, Zhao G-y (2012) Safe mining technology of undersea metal mine. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 22:740–746.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s1003-6326(11)61239-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sanshandao Gold Mine (2012) Sanshandao Gold Mine geological survey report (report). Sanshandao Gold Mine, China, YantaiGoogle Scholar
  17. State Bureau of Coal Industry (2000) Regulations of buildings, water, rail way and main well lane leaving coal pillar and press coal mining. China Coal Industry Publishing House, China, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  18. Sijing C (2009) Mine backfill mechanics Foundation, 2nd edn. Metallurgical industry press, China, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  19. Wang S, Li X (2016) Dynamic distribution of longwall mining-induced voids in overlying strata of a coalbed. Int J Geomech 17:04016124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wang JA, Shang XC, Ma HT (2008) Investigation of catastrophic ground collapse in Xingtai gypsum mines in China. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 45:1480–1499.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2008.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wang F, Tu S, Zhang C, Zhang Y, Bai Q (2016a) Evolution mechanism of water-flowing zones and control technology for longwall mining in shallow coal seams beneath gully topography. Environ Earth Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-6121-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang S, Li X, Wang D (2016b) Void fraction distribution in overburden disturbed by longwall mining of coal. Environ Earth Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-4958-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wang G, Wu M, Wang R, Xu H, Song X (2017a) Height of the mining-induced fractured zone above a coal face. Eng Geol 216:140–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2016.11.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang H, Zhang D, Wang X, Zhang W (2017b) Visual exploration of the spatiotemporal evolution law of overburden failure and mining-induced fractures: a case study of the Wangjialing coal mine in China. Minerals 7:35.  https://doi.org/10.3390/min7030035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wang S, Li X, Wang S (2017c) Separation and fracturing in overlying strata disturbed by longwall mining in a mineral deposit seam. Eng Geol 226:257–266.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2017.06.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang S, Li X, Wang S (2018a) Three-dimensional mineral grade distribution modelling and longwall mining of an underground bauxite seam. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 103:123–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang S, Li X, Du K, Wang S, Tao M (2018b) Experimental study of the triaxial strength properties of hollow cylindrical granite specimens under coupled external and internal confining stresses. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51:2015–2031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang S, Li X, Du K, Wang S (2018c) Experimental investigation of hard rock fragmentation using a conical pick on true triaxial test apparatus. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 79:210–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xu N, Zhang J, Tian H et al (2016) Discrete element modeling of strata and surface movement induced by mining under open-pit final slope. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 88:61–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2016.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ye Q, Wang WJ, Wang G, Jia ZZ (2017) Numerical simulation on tendency mining fracture evolution characteristics of overlying strata and coal seams above working face with large inclination angle and mining depth. Arab J Geosci 10:82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yin H, Wei J, Lefticariu L, Guo J, Xie D, Li Z, Zhao P (2016) Numerical simulation of water flow from the coal seam floor in a deep longwall mine in China. Mine Water Environ 35:243–252.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10230-016-0385-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhang J, Peng S (2005) Water inrush and environmental impact of shallow seam mining. Environ Geol 48:1068–1076.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-005-0045-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang D, Fan G, Wang X (2012) Characteristics and stability of slope movement response to underground mining of shallow coal seams away from gullies. Int J Min Sci Technol 22:47–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmst.2011.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang C, Mitra R, Oh J, Canbulat I, Hebblewhite B (2017) Numerical analysis on mining-induced fracture development around river valleys. Int J Min Reclam Environ.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17480930.2017.1293495 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhao C, Bai B (2009) Soil mechanics principle (revised edition). Tsinghua University Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhao GY, Yan-Liang PY (2009) Study on the Safety Mining Technology of Seabed Hard Rock. China Saf Sci J 5:29Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Resources and Safety EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Wenzhou Runxin Manufacturing Machine CO., LtdWenzhouChina

Personalised recommendations