Advertisement

Heavy metal pollution assessment in agricultural soils of Kermanshah province, Iran

  • Shahab Ahmadi Doabi
  • Mahin KaramiEmail author
  • Majid Afyuni
Original Article
  • 26 Downloads

Abstract

Heavy metals in agricultural soils are of major environmental concern because of the longstanding toxicity and bioaccumulation of metals. We collected 53 soil samples from agricultural fields in Kermanshah province, Iran. Our results showed average concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mn and Fe were 74.6, 41.2, 131.5, 79.2, 559.1, and 25,935 mg kg−1, respectively. The concentrations of Zn (81%), Cu (98%), Ni (100%), Cr (98%) and Mn (79%) were greater than their background values in the world soils. Except for Ni (68%) and Cr (4%), the concentrations of Zn and Cu were lower than the maximum permissible levels suggested by the Iranian Environmental Quality Standard for agricultural soils. Multivariate statistical analyses successfully grouped the metals according to their anthropogenic or natural origins. The anthropogenic activities have resulted in Zn, Cu, and Fe accumulation in the agricultural fields, whereas Ni and Cr amounts are mainly derived from natural, combined with anthropogenic origins. On the other hand, Mn shows evidences of a geogenic source in the soils. The calculated results of enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) of the heavy metals reveal a similar order of Ni > Cu > Cr > Mn > Zn > Fe. The high EF and Igeo for Ni and Cu in agricultural soils indicate that there is a considerable Ni and Cu pollution probably. The EF and Igeo of Zn and Fe are low and the assessment results indicate an absence of distinct Zn and Fe pollution in agricultural soils. The assessment results of pollution indexes also support serious pollution of agricultural soils by Ni and Cu. In general, the integrated pollution index analysis indicates the agricultural soils in the region as seriously polluted.

Keywords

Agricultural soil Heavy metals Pollution assessment Multivariate analysis Kermanshah 

Notes

References

  1. Acosta JA, Faz A, Martínez-Martínez S, Arocena JM (2011) Enrichment of metals in soils subjected to different land uses in a typical Mediterranean environment (Murcia City, southeast Spain). Appl Geochem 26:405–414.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.01.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmadi Doabi S, Karami M, Afyuni M (2016) Regional-scale fluxes of zinc, copper, and nickel into and out of the agricultural soils of the Kermanshah province in western Iran. Environ Monit Assess 188:1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5225-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali MM, Ali ML, Islam MS, Rahman MZ (2016) Preliminary assessment of heavy metals in water and sediment of Karnaphuli River, Bangladesh. Environ Nano Technol Monit Manage 5:27–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enmm.2016.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alloway BJ (1995) Heavy metals in soils, 2nd edn. Blackie Academic and Professional, GlasgowCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alloway B (2010) Heavy metals in soils: trace metals and metalloids in soils and their bioavailability, third ed. Springer, Berlin, p 614Google Scholar
  6. Amjadian K, Sacchi E, Mehr MR (2016) Heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of different land uses in Erbil metropolis, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Environ Monit Assess 188:605.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5623-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Antibachi D, Kelepertzis E, Kelepertsis A (2012) Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the Mouriki-Thiva area (central Greece) and environmental impact implications. Soil Sediment Contam Int J 21:434–450.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15320383.2012.672493 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Avery BW (1980) Soil classification for England and Wales (Higher Categories). Soil survey technical monograph No. 14. HarpendenGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhuiyan MA, Parvez L, Islam MA, Dampare SB, Suzuki S (2010) Heavy metal pollution of coal mine-affected agricultural soils in the northern part of Bangladesh. J Hazard Mater 173:384–392.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.08.085 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cai L, Xu Z, Ren M, Guo Q, Hu X, Hu G, Wan H, Peng P (2012) Source identification of eight hazardous heavy metals in agricultural soils of Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 78:2–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chandrasekaran A, Ravisankar R, Harikrishnan N, Satapathy KK, Prasad MVR, Kanagasabapathy KV (2015) Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metal concentration in soils of Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India—spectroscopical approach. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 137:589–600.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2014.08.093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen TB, Zheng YM, Lei M, Huang ZC, Wu HT, Chen H, Fan KK, Yu K, Wu X, Tian QZ (2005) Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils of urban parks in Beijing, China. Chemosphere 60:542–551.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.12.072 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen T, Liu X, Zhu M, Zhao K, Wu J, Xu J, Huang P (2008) Identification of trace element sources and associated risk assessment in vegetable soils of the urban–rural transitional area of Hangzhou, China. Environ Pollut 151:67–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2007.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duzgoren-Aydin NS, Wong C, Aydin A, Song Z, You M, Li XD (2006) Heavy metal contamination and distribution in the urban environment of Guangzhou, SE China. Environ Geochem Health 28:375–391.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-005-9036-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Environmental Protection Organization of the Islamic Republic of Iran (2013) Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for agricultural soilsGoogle Scholar
  16. Esmaeili A, Moore F, Keshavarzi B, Jaafarzadeh N, Kermani M (2014) A geochemical survey of heavy metals in agricultural and background soils of the Isfahan industrial zone. Iran Catena 121:88–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2014.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Facchinelli A, Sacchi E, Mallen L (2001) Multivariate statistical and GIS-based approach to identify heavy metal sources in soils. Environ Pollut 114:313–324.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00243-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gee GW, Bauder JW (1986) Particle-size analysis. In: Klute A (ed) Methods of soil analysis. Part 1, Agron. Monogr. 9, 2nd edn. ASA and SSSA, Madison, pp 383–411Google Scholar
  19. Hani A, Pazira E (2011) Heavy metals assessment and identification of their sources in agricultural soils of Southern Tehran, Iran. Environ Monit Assess 176:677–691.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1612-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heidari A, Mahmoodi S, Roozitalab MH, Mermut AR (2008) Diversity of clay minerals in the Vertisols of three different climatic regions in Western Iran. J Agric Sci Technol 10:269–284Google Scholar
  21. Houba V, Van der Lee J, Novozamsky I (1995) Soil and plant analysis, a series of syllabi part 5B: soil analysis procedures, other procedures. Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Agricultural University, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  22. Islamic Republic of Iran Meteorological Organization (IRIMO) (2013). http://www.irimo.ir
  23. Jackson ML (1958) Soil chemical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, p 220Google Scholar
  24. Jalali M, Hemati N (2013) Chemical fractionation of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in selected paddy soils of Iran. Paddy Water Environ 11:299–309.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10333-012-0320-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Karimi N, Ghaderian SM, Maroofi H, Schat H (2009) Analysis of arsenic in soil and vegetation of a contaminated area in Zarshuran, Iran. Int J Phytorem 12:159–173.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15226510903213977 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kartal Ş, Aydın Z, Tokalıoğlu Ş (2006) Fractionation of metals in street sediment samples by using the BCR sequential extraction procedure and multivariate statistical elucidation of the data. J Hazard Mater 132:80–89.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.11.091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kelepertzis E (2014) Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils of Mediterranean: insights from Argolida basin. Peloponnese Greece Geoderma 221:82–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2014.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li Y, Gou X, Wang G, Zhang Q, Su Q, Xiao G (2008) Heavy metal contamination and source in arid agricultural soils in central Gansu province, China. J Environ Sci 20:607–612.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62101-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li J, He M, Han W, Gu Y (2009) Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods. J Hazard Mater 164:976–981.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.08.112 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li X, Liu L, Wang Y, Luo G, Chen X, Yang X, Hall MH, Guo R, Wang H, Cui J, He X (2013) Heavy metal contamination of urban soil in an old industrial city (Shenyang) in Northeast China. Geoderma 192:50–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.08.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lin Y, Han P, Huang Y, Yuan GL, Guo JX, Li J (2017) Source identification of potentially hazardous elements and their relationships with soil properties in agricultural soil of the Pinggu district of Beijing, China: multivariate statistical analysis and redundancy analysis. J Geochem Explor 173:110118.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2016.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liu QT, Diamond ML, Gingrich SE, Ondov JM, Maciejczyk P, Stern GA (2003) Accumulation of metals, trace elements and semi-volatile organic compounds on exterior window surfaces in Baltimore. Environ Pollut 122:51–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00286-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Loska K, Wiechula D (2003) Application of principal component analysis for the estimation of source of heavy metal contamination in surface sediments from the Rybnik Reservoir. Chemosphere 51:723–733.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00187-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lu XW, Wang LJ, Li LY, Lei K, Huang L, Kang D (2010) Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals in street dust of Baoji, NW China. J Hazard Mater 173:744–749.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lu A, Wang J, Qin X, Wang K, Han P, Zhang S (2012) Multivariate and geostatistical analyses of the spatial distribution and origin of heavy metals in the agricultural soils in Shunyi, Beijing, China. Sci Total Environ 425:66–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marchand C, Allenbach M, Lallier Verges E (2011) Relationships between heavy metals distribution and organic matter cycling in mangrove sediments (Conception Bay, New Caledonia). Geoderma 160:444–456.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.10.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Martin HW, Kaplan DI (1998) Temporal changes in cadmium, thallium, and vanadium mobility in soil and phytoavailability under field conditions. Water Air Soil Pollut 101:399–410.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004906313547 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Martin JR, Ramos-Miras JJ, Boluda R, Gil C (2013) Spatial relations of heavy metals in arable and greenhouse soils of a Mediterranean environment region (Spain). Geoderma 200:180–188.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.02.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Micó C, Recatalá L, Peris M, Sánchez J (2006) Assessing heavy metal sources in agricultural soils of an European Mediterranean area by multivariate analysis. Chemosphere 65:863–872.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.03.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Montagne D, Cornu S, Bourennane H, Baize D, Ratié C, King D (2007) Effect of agricultural practices on trace-element distribution in soil. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 38:473–491.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00103620601174411 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Müller G (1969) Index of geo-accumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. Geojournal 2:108–118Google Scholar
  42. Nagajyoti PC, Lee KD, Sreekanth TVM (2010) Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: a review. Environ Chem Lett 8:199–216.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-010-0297-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nanos N, Martin JAR (2012) Multiscale analysis of heavy metal contents in soils: spatial variability in the Duero river basin (Spain). Geoderma 189:554–562.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Niu L, Yang F, Xu C, Yang H, Liu W (2013) Status of metal accumulation in farmland soils across China: from distribution to risk assessment. Environ Pollut 176:55–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.01.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Qishlaqi A, Moore F (2007) Statistical analysis of accumulation and sources of heavy metals occurrence in agricultural soils of Khoshk River Banks, Shiraz, Iran. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 2:565–573Google Scholar
  46. Rodriguez JA, Nanos N, Grau JM, Gil L, López-Arias M (2008) Multiscale analysis of heavy metal contents in Spanish agricultural topsoils. Chemosphere 70:1085–1096.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.07.056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Romic M, Romic D (2003) Heavy metals distribution in agricultural topsoils in urban area. Environ Geol 43:795–805.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-002-0694-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sezgin N, Ozcan HK, Demir G, Nemlioglu S, Bayat C (2004) Determination of heavy metal concentrations in street dusts in Istanbul E-5 highway. Environ Int 29:979–985.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00075-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Škrbic B, Durisic-Mladenovic N (2002) An evaluation of residues at an oil refinery site following fires. J Environ Sci Health Part A 37:1029–1039.  https://doi.org/10.1081/ESE-120004520 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sparks DL, Page AL, Helmke PA, Loeppert RH, Soltanpour PN, Tabatabai MA, Sumner ME (1996) Methods of soil analysis. Part 3—chemical methods. Soil Science Society of America Inc, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  51. Sridhara Chary N, Kamala CT, Samuel Suman Raj D (2008) Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 69:513–524.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2007.04.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sun C, Liu J, Wang Y, Sun L, Yu H (2013) Multivariate and geostatistical analyses of the spatial distribution and sources of heavy metals in agricultural soil in Dehui, Northeast China. Chemosphere 92:517–523.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.02.063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tahri M, Benyaich F, Bounakhla M, Bilal E, Gruffat JJ, Moutte J, Garcia D (2005) Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contents in soils, sediments and water in the region of Meknes (central Morocco). Environ Monit Assess 102:405–417.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-005-6572-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wei B, Yang L (2010) A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China. Microchem J 94:99–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2009.09.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wilcke W, Müller S, Kanchanakool N, Zech W (1998) Urban soil contamination in Bangkok: heavy metal and aluminium partitioning in topsoils. Geoderma 86:211–228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(98)00045-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yanez L, Ortiz D, Calderon J, Batres L, Carrizales L, Mejia J, Martinez L, GarciaNieto E, Diaz-Barriga F (2002) Overview of human health and chemical mixtures: problems facing developing countries. Environ Health Perspect 110:901–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yang P, Mao R, Shao H, Gao Y (2009) The spatial variability of heavy metal distribution in the suburban farmland of Taihang Piedmont Plain, China. C R Biol 332:558–566.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2009.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yongming H, Peixuan D, Junji C, Posmentier ES (2006) Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi’an, Central China. Sci Total Environ 355:176–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.02.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhang J, Liu CL (2002) Riverine composition and estuarine geochemistry of particulate metals in China—weathering features, anthropogenic impact and chemical fluxes. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 54:1051–1070.  https://doi.org/10.1006/ecss.2001.0879 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zonta R, Zaggia L, Argese E (1994) Heavy metal and grain-size distributions in estuarine shallow water sediments of the Cona Marsh (Venice Lagoon, Italy). Sci Total Environ 151:19–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(94)90482-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Soil Science, College of AgricultureIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Department of Soil Science, Faculty of AgricultureRazi UniversityKermanshahIran

Personalised recommendations