Advertisement

Measurements of radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) exhalations and their decay product concentrations at Indian Stations in Antarctica

  • Rama Prajith
  • R. P. Rout
  • D. Kumbhar
  • Rosaline Mishra
  • B. K. Sahoo
  • B. K. Sapra
Original Article
  • 27 Downloads

Abstract

During the 33rd summer expedition to the two Indian Stations at Antarctica, Bharati and Maitri, radon and thoron progeny concentrations in indoors and outdoors were measured along with radon (222Rn)/thoron (220Rn) exhalation rate measurements of soil samples, radionuclide content and 222Rn emanation coefficient. This investigation was based on the reports of the higher gamma radiation levels reported around these stations. The results will give an estimate of the radioactivity level as well as the total dose received by personnel carrying out long-term measurements at these stations. Radon and thoron progeny concentrations were measured using direct radon and thoron progeny sensors (DRPS and DTPS). The soil radionuclide content was measured using HPGe gamma spectrometry while radon/thoron exhalation rates were measured using the accumulation method by scintillation radon/thoron monitor. In contrast to a higher radiation field and radioactivity content, studies showed the radon/thoron exhalation rates and progeny concentration to be similar to that measured in normal background areas of other parts of the world. This could be attributed to the ice deposits and the larger atmospheric dispersion, and also to the soil nature which is mainly loamy sands with low clay content contributing to a lower emanation. The results are discussed.

Keywords

Antarctica Radionuclide content 222Rn/220Rn exhalation rate EETC EERC Accumulation method DTPS/DRPS 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are grateful to Dr. D. Datta, Head, RP&AD, BARC and Dr. K.S. Pradeepkumar, Associate Director, HS&EG, BARC, Mumbai, for their encouragement and support towards this work.

References

  1. Bakshi AK, Pal R, Dhar A, Chougaonkar MP (2013) Preliminary study on the measurement of background radiation dose at Antarctica during 32nd expedition. Radiat Prot Environ 36:164–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bakshi AK, Rama P, Chinnaesakki S, Pal R, Sathian D, Dhar A, PalaniSelvam T, Sapra BK, Datta D (2016) Measurements of background radiation levels around Indian station Bharati during 33rd Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica. J Environ Radioact 167:1–8Google Scholar
  3. Cameron RE, King J, David CN (1970) Microbiology, ecology and microclimatology of soil sites in dry valleys of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Antarctic ecology, 2. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Chakraverty S, Sahoo BK, Rao TD, Karunakar P, Sapra BK (2018) Modelling uncertainties in the diffusion-advection equation for radon transport in soil using interval arithmetic.J. Environ Radioact 182:165–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Congress US (1989) Office of technology assessment. In: Prospects P A minerals treaty for antarctica, OTA-O-428. US Government Printing Office, Washington, p 115Google Scholar
  6. Derin MT, Vijayagopal P, Venkataraman B, Chaubey RC, Gopinathan A (2012) Radionuclides and radiation indices of high background radiation area in Chavara–Neendakara placer deposits (Kerala, India). PLoS One 7(11):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dutt A, Saini MS, Singh TN, Verma AK, Bajpai RK (2012) Analysis of thermo-hydrologic-mechanical impact of repository for high-level radioactive waste in clay host formation: an Indian reference disposal system. Environ Earth Sci 66(8):2327–2341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gaware JJ, Sahoo BK, Sapra BK, Mayya YS (2011) Development of online radon and thoron monitoring systems for occupational and general environments. BARC Newslett Technol Dev 318:45–51Google Scholar
  9. Godoy JM, Schuch LA, Nordemann DJR, Reis VRG, Ramalho M, Recio JC, Brito RRA, Olech MA (1998) 137Cs, 226, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K concentrations in antarctic soil, sediment and selected moss and Lichen samples. J Environ Radioact 41(1):33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goto M, Moriizumi J, Yamazawa H, Lida T, Zhuo W (2008) Estimation of global radon exhalation rate distribution. AIP Conf Proc 1034:169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Greeman DJ, Rose AJ (1996) Factors controlling the emanation of radon and thoron in soils of the eastern USA. Chem Geol 129:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hirotaka U, Shigeki T, Masahiko H, Kazuo O, Yasunobu I (1998) Preliminary results from radon observation at Syowa station, Antarctica, during 1996. Polar MeteorolGlacial 12:1112–1123Google Scholar
  13. Hussein ZA, Jaffer MS, Ismail AH, BattawyAA (2013a) Radon exhalation rate frombuilding materials using passive technique nuclear track detectors. Int J Eng Sci Res 4(7):1276–1282Google Scholar
  14. Hussein ZA, Jaffer MS, Ismail AH, Battawy AA (2013b) Radon exhalation rate from building materials using passive technique nuclear track detectors. Int J Eng Sci Res 4(7):1276–1282Google Scholar
  15. Ilic R, Rusovc VD, Pavlovychd VN, Vaschenkod VM, Hanžic L, Bondarchukc YA (2005) Radon in antarctica. Radiat Meas 40:415–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. International Atomic Energy Agency (1989a) Regional workshop on environmental sampling and measurements of radioactivity for monitoring purpose, Kalpakkam, India: 85-92Google Scholar
  17. International Atomic Energy Agency (1989b) Measurement of radionuclides in food and environment. Technical Reports Series no. 295. IAEA, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  18. International Atomic Energy Agency (2013) Measurement and calculation of radon releases from NORM residues, Technical Reports Series no. 474, IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  19. Jojo PJ, Kumar A, Ramachandran TV, Prasad R (1995) Microanalysis of uranium in Antarctica soil samples using fission track method. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 191(2):381–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jónás J, Sas Z, Vaupotic J, Kocsis E, Somlai J, Kovács T (2016) Thoron emanation and exhalation of Slovenian soils determined by a PIC detector-equipped radon monitor. NUKLEONIKA 61(3):379–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kannan V, Rajan MP, Iyengar MAR, Ramesh R (2002) Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in soil and beach sand samples of Kalpakkam (India) using hyperpure germanium(HPGe) gamma ray spectrometry. Appl Radiat Isot 57:109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kanse SD, Sahoo BK, Sapra BK, Gaware JJ, Mayya YS (2013) Powder sandwich technique: A novel method for determining the thoron emanation potential of powders bearing high 224Ra content. Radiat Meas 48:82–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kardos R, Gregoric A, Jonas J, Vaupotic J, Kovacs T, Ishimori Y (2015) Dependence of radon emanation of soil on lithology. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 304:1321–1327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kobeissi MA, El Samad O, Zahraman K, Milky S, Bahsaun F, Abumarad KM (2008) Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials in Southern Lebanon. J Environ Radioact 99:1279–1288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kumar A, Singh S (2004) Radon exhalation in building materials using solid-state nuclear track detectors. Pramana J Phy 62(1):143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kumar A, Chauhan RP, Joshi M, Sahoo BK (2014) Modelling of indoor radon concentration from radon exhalation rates of building materials and validation through measurements. J Environ Radioact 127:50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kumar A, Chauhan RP, Joshi M, Prajith R, Sahoo BK (2015) Estimation of radionuclide content and radon-thoron exhalation from commonly used building materials in India. Environ Earth Sci 74(2):1539–1546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maheshwar S, Verma AK, Singh TN, Bajpai RK (2015) Study of thermo-hydro-mechanical processes at a potential site of an Indian nuclear waste repository. J Earth Syst Sci 124(8):1693–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Masahiro H, Michikuni S, Masato S, Masahide F, Masahiro F, Kazuyuki M, Kazutaka E (2008) Radon and thoron exhalation rate map in Japan. AIP Conf Proc 1034:177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mauring A, Gäfvert T (2013) Radon tightness of different sample sealing methods for gamma spectrometric measurements of 226Ra. Appl RadiatIsot 81:92–95Google Scholar
  31. Mayya YS, Mishra R, Prajith R, Gole AC, Sapra BK, Chougaonkar MP, Nair RRK, Ramola RC, Karunakara N, Koya PKM (2012) Multi-parametric approach towards the assessment of radon and thoron progeny exposures. Radiat Prot Dosim 152(1–3):18–24Google Scholar
  32. Mergelov NS (2014) Soils of wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills and Vestfold hills oases (Princess Elizabeth Land East Antarctica). Eurasian Soil Sci 47(9): 845–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meriwether JR, Sheu W, Hardaway C, Beck JN (1995) Evaluation of soil radioactivities using pedologically based sampling techniques. Health Phys 69(3):406–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mishra R, Mayya YS (2008) Study of a deposition-based direct thoron progeny sensor (DTPS) technique for estimating equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration (EETC) in indoor environment. Radiat Meas 43(8):1408–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mishra R, Sapra BK, MayyaYS (2009b) Development of an integrated sampler based on direct 222Rn/220Rn progeny sensors in flow-mode for estimating unattached/attached progeny concentration. Nucl Instr Meth Phys ResB 267:3574–3579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mishra R, Mayya YS, Kushwaha HS (2009a) Measurement of 220Rn/222Rn progeny deposition velocities on surfaces and their comparison with theoretical models. J Aerosol Sci 40(1):1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mishra R, Sapra BK, Mayya YS (2014) Multi-parametric approach towards the assessment of radon and thoron progeny exposures. Rev Sci Instrum 85:022105.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4865165 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Navas A, Soto J, López-Martínez J (2005) Radionuclides in soils of Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica. Appl Radiat Isotopes 62(5):809–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nazaroff W, Nero AV (1988) Radon and its decay products in indoor air. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Nazaroff WW, Moed BA, Sextro RG, Revzan KL, Nero AV(1989) Factors Influencing Soil as a Source of Indoor Radon: Framework for Assessing Radon Source Potential. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  41. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development- Nuclear Energy Agency (1979) Exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by NEA Group of Experts, OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  42. Park C (1993) Environmental-issues. Prog Phys Geogr 17: 473–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pereira EB, Setzer AW, Cavalcanti IFA (1988) 222Rn in the Antarctica Peninsula during 1986. Rad Prot Dosim 24:85–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Prakash K, Sridharan A, Thejas HK, Swaroop HM (2012) A Simplified approach of determining the specific gravity of soil solids. Geotech Geol Eng 30:1063–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rafat MA (2015) A study of radon emitted from building materials using solid state nuclear track detectors. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 8:516–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ramachandran TV, Balani MC (1995) Report on the participation by the Bhabha atomic research Centre in the tenth Indian expedition to Antarctica. Scientific Report. Department of Ocean Development, Technical Publication no.8: 159–180Google Scholar
  47. Rusov VD, Glushkov VD, Vaschenko VN (2003) Astrophysical model of global climate of earth. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv, p 212Google Scholar
  48. Sahoo BK, Mayya YS (2010) Two dimensional diffusion theory of trace gas emission into soil chambers for flux measurements. Agric For Meteorol 150(9):1211–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sahoo BK, Nathwani D, Eappen KP, Ramachandran TV, Gaware JJ, Mayya YS (2007) Estimation of radon emanation factor in Indian building materials. Radiat Meas 42:1422–1425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sahoo BK, Agarwal TK, Gaware JJ, Sapra BK (2014) Thoron interference in radon exhalation rate measured by solid state nuclear track detector based can technique. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 302:1417–1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schery SD, Gaeddert DH, Wilkening MH (1984) Factors affecting exhalation of radon from a gravelly sandy loam. J Geophys Res Atmos 89:7299–7309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shoeib MY, Thabayneh KM (2014) Assessment of natural radiation exposure and radon exhalation rate in various samples of Egyptian building materials. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 7:174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stoulos S, Manolopoulou M, Papastefanou C (2003) Assessment of natural radiation exposure and radon exhalation from building materials in Greece. J Environ Radioact 69:225–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stoulos S, Manolopoulou M, Papastefanou C (2004) Measurement of radon emanation factor from granular sample: effects of additive in cement. Appl Radiation Isotopes 60:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Szajdak LW, Karabanov AK (2010) Physical, chemical and biological processes in soils, chapter: the water sorptivity of clay loam soils. Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, pp 137–145Google Scholar
  56. Tokonami S, Kovacs T, Sugino M, Kavasi N, Takahashi H, Kobayashi Y, Sorimachi A, Ishikawa T, Yoshinaga S (2008) Influence of environmental thoron on radon measurements and related issues. AIP Conf Proc 1034:145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. UNSCEAR (1993) United nation scientific committee on the effect of atomic radiation. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. UNSCEAR (2000) United Nation scientific committee on the effect of atomic radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation, vol I. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. Van den Bygaart and Protz (1995) Gamma radioactivity on a chronosequence, Pinery Provincial Park, Ontario. Can J Soil Sci 75:73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Verma SK, Mital GS, Rao GV, Rangarajan R, Reddy KNS, Venkatarayuda M (2006) Radioactivity Measurements on Some Rock and Water Samples from Dakshin Gangotri, Antarctica. Technical Publication 4Google Scholar
  61. Verma AK, Gautam P, Singh TN, Bajpai RK (2015) Numerical simulation ofhigh level radioactive waste for disposal in deep underground tunnel. Eng Geol Soc Territory 1:499–504Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rama Prajith
    • 1
  • R. P. Rout
    • 1
  • D. Kumbhar
    • 1
  • Rosaline Mishra
    • 1
  • B. K. Sahoo
    • 1
  • B. K. Sapra
    • 1
  1. 1.Radiological Physics and Advisory DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations