Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, 77:789 | Cite as

Assessment and characterization of the basement aquifer at Idu–Karmo, area of FCT-Abuja, Nigeria, for drinking and irrigation

  • C. G. Aleke
  • C. M. Nwachukwu
Original Article
  • 60 Downloads

Abstract

Idu–Karmo of the federal capital territory, Abuja, is located within the weathered basement aquifers of Northern Nigeria. Fifteen groundwater samples obtained were analysed for their major ionic components. The physical properties show that the water is slightly acidic to neutral (6.0–7.0) and has moderate to very high values of electrical conductivity (155–2230 µS/cm).The dominant hydrochemical facies of groundwater is the Ca–Cl2 groundwater type. Irrigation parameters measured include: SAR which ranges from 0.12 to 1.06; TH which ranges from 0.8 to 196; KR ranges from 0.03 to 0.42; PI which ranges from 46 to 199; and RSC ranges from − 131.90 to 3.43. These parameters (SAR, total hardness, Kelly’s ratio, permeability index and residual sodium carbonate) show that the water is suitable for agricultural purpose except for the magnesium ratio which has a high unsuitability for irrigation, probably due to the presence of ferro-magnesian minerals contained in the calc-alkaline basement rocks of the Idu–Karmo area. The results of the geochemical survey reveal major ionic components are in the order Cl > HCO3 > NO3 > SO42− and Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > K+. Comparison with WHO and APHA standards shows that all the ionic concentrations satisfy all permissible limits for drinking purpose except for elevated concentrations of nitrate which probably may have arisen from poor handling of domestic wastes, leakages from nearby septic tanks/soak-away and the excessive use of fertilisers. Qualitatively, treatment is required especially on the nitrate-contaminated areas to make the water fit for drinking and irrigation.

Keywords

Groundwater quality Hydrochemistry Irrigation SAR Aquifer Fractured Regolith Basement 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully appreciate the anonymous reviewers that brought this work to its wonderful state. However, the kind efforts of Mr. Chinemelu Ndichie of the department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka for the map work; Miss Nonyelum Stella Iloanya, Mr Nwosu Ikechukwu and Katrina Ali-(the field crew and course mates in the department of Geology, UNN) are appreciated. Also appreciated are Prof. S. O. Onwuka, Head of Department of Geology, UNN and Dr. Mohammed Dan-Hassan of the Federal Water Board, Abuja, for their suggestions that improved the quality of this work.

References

  1. Abam TKS, Ngah SA (2013) An assessment of groundwater potentials of the Central Area District and its environs, Federal Capital City, Abuja, Nigeria. Int J Eng Sci 2(11):7–12Google Scholar
  2. Adakayi PE (2000) Climate of FCT. In: Dawam PD (ed) Geography of Abuja, Federal Capital Territory. Famous/Asanlu Publishers, MinnaGoogle Scholar
  3. Aleke CG, Okogbue CO, Aghamelu OP, Nnaji NJ (2016) Hydrogeological potential and qualitative assessment of groundwater from the Ajali Sandstone at Ninth Mile area Southeastern Nigeria. Environ Earth Sci 75:1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-4843-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alhassan MM, Ujoh F (2012) Assessment of the chemical quality of potable water sources in Abuja, Nigeria. Br J Appl Sci Tech 2(2):146–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amadi UMP, Teme SC (1989) The alteration scheme of some 2:1 layer clays from the basement complex. J Min Geol 25(1 & 2):33–41Google Scholar
  6. American Public Health Association (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st edn. American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation, Washington, pp 7–15Google Scholar
  7. Aminu T, Amadi AN (2014) Fluoride contamination of shallow groundwater in parts of Zango Local Government Area of Katsina State, Northwest Nigeria. J Geosci Geom 2(4):178–184Google Scholar
  8. Appelo CAJ, Postma D (2005) Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution, 2nd edn. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp 647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ayers RS, Westcot DW (1994) Water quality for agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29, Revision 1, pp 1–130Google Scholar
  10. Balogun O (2001) The Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria: a geography of its development. University of Ibadan Press Limited, IbadanGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhuiyan MAH, Bodrud-Doza Md, Towfiqul Islam ARM, Rakib MA, Rahman MS, Ramanathan AL (2016) Assessment of groundwater quality of Lakshimpur district of Bangladesh using water quality indices, geostatistical methods, and multivariate analysis. Environ Earth Sci 75(12):1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dan-Hassan MA (2001) Determination of the geo-electric sequences and aquifer units in parts of the basement complex of north-central Nigeria. WatRes 12:25–28Google Scholar
  13. Dan-Hassan MA (2015) Aspect of the hydrogeology of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. Ahmadu Bello University Press Limited, Zaria, p 199Google Scholar
  14. Domenico PA, Schwartz FA (1990) Physical and chemical hydrogeology. Willy, New York, p 824Google Scholar
  15. Doneen LD (1964) Water quality for agriculture. Department of irrigation, University of California, Davis, p 4Google Scholar
  16. Eaton FM (1950) Significance of carbonates in irrigation waters. Soil Sci 39:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eduvie MO, Olabode T, Yaya OO (2003) Assessment of groundwater potentials of Abuja environs. In: Harvey P (ed) Towards the millenium development goals: actions for water and environmental sanitation. 29th WEDC International Conference, Abuja, pp 130–132Google Scholar
  18. Egboka BCE, Ezeonu FC (1990) Nitrate and Nitrite pollution and contamination in parts of southeastern Nigeria: a case of a developing economy. Wat Res J NAH 2(1):101–110Google Scholar
  19. Etu-Efeotor JO (1998) Hydrochemical analysis of surface and groundwaters of Gwagwalada Area of Central Nigeria. Glob J Pure Appl Sci 4(2):153–162Google Scholar
  20. Eyankware MO, Nnajieze VS, Aleke CG (2018) Geochemical assessment of water quality for irrigation in abandoned limestone quarry pit at Nkalagu area, southern Benue Trough, Nigeria. Environ Earth Sci 77:66.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7232-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hem JD (1985) Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water. USGS Water Supply Paper 2254:249Google Scholar
  22. Hounslow AW (1995) Water quality data: analysis and interpretation. CRS press, Inc. Lewis publishers, Boca Raton, p 397Google Scholar
  23. Iloeje NP (1980) A new geography of Nigeria. Longman, London, p 210Google Scholar
  24. Joshi DM, Kumar A, Agrawal N (2009) Assessment of the irrigation water quality of River Ganga in Haridwar District. Ind J Chem 2(2):285–292Google Scholar
  25. Kelly WP (1963) Use of saline irrigation water. Soil Sci 95(4):355–391Google Scholar
  26. Langennegger O (1981) High nitrate concentrations in shallow aquifers in a rural area of Central Nigeria caused by random deposits of domestic refuse and excrement. In: van Duijvenbooden W, Glasbergen P, van Lelyveld H (eds) Quality of groundwater: studies in environmental science, vol 17. pp 135–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-1116(08)71896-X
  27. NSDWQ (2007) Nigerian standards for drinking water quality. Nig Ind Standards (NIS) 554:13–14Google Scholar
  28. Omeje M, Ebele JE, Ugwuoke PE (2015) Geophysical analysis of basement terrain groundwater using vertical electrical sounding: a case study of parts of Abuja North Central Nigeria. Int J Geophys Geochem 2(4):92–97Google Scholar
  29. Piper AM (1944) A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses. Trans Am Geophys Union 25:914–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Raghunath HM (1987) Groundwater, 2nd edn. Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, pp 344–369Google Scholar
  31. Richards LA (ed) (1969) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. In: United States Salinity Laboratory Staff Agricultural Handbook No. 60. The United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p 160  Google Scholar
  32. Sawyer CN, McCarty PL (1967) Chemistry for sanitary engineers, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 518Google Scholar
  33. Spectrum Analytic Inc. (2010) Guide to interpreting irrigation water analysis, Washington C.H., Ohio, p 20. http://www.spectrumanalytic.com
  34. Uma KO (1993) Nitrates in shallow regolith aquifers around Sokoto town Nigeria. Environ Geol 21:70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. World Health Organisation (2006) Guideline for drinking water quality, Geneva, 3rd edn. World Health Organisation, Geneva, p 346–385Google Scholar
  36. World Health Organisation (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 4th edn. World Health Organisation, Geneva, pp 564Google Scholar
  37. Yesilnacar ML, Gulluoglu MS (2008) Hydrochemical characteristics and the effects of irrigation on ground water quality in Harran plain, GAP project, Turkey. Environ Geol 54(1):183–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria
  2. 2.Geological Services DepartmentNational Steel Raw Materials Exploration Agency (NSRMEA)KadunaNigeria
  3. 3.Department of GeologyGregory University UturuUturuNigeria

Personalised recommendations