Environmental Earth Sciences

, 77:658 | Cite as

Change in carbon flux (1960–2015) of the Red River (Vietnam)

  • Thi Phuong Quynh LeEmail author
  • Nhu Da Le
  • Viet Nga Dao
  • Emma Rochelle-Newall
  • Thi Mai Huong Nguyen
  • Cyril Marchand
  • Thi Thuy Duong
  • Thi Xuan Binh Phung
Original Article


Global riverine carbon concentrations and fluxes have been impacted by climate and human-induced changes for many decades. This paper aims to reconstruct the longterm carbon concentrations and carbon fluxes of the Red River, a system under the coupled pressures of environmental change and human activity. Based on (1) the relationships between particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC, DOC) or dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and suspended sediments (TSS) or river water discharge and on (2) the available detailed historical records of river discharge and TSS concentration, the variations of the Red River carbon concentration and flux were estimated for the period 1960–2015. The results show that total carbon flux of the Red River averaged 2555 ± 639 kton C year−1. DIC fluxes dominated total carbon fluxes, representing 64% of total, reflecting a strong weathering process from carbonate rocks in the upstream basin. Total carbon fluxes significantly decreased from 2816 kton C year−1 during the 1960s to 1372 kton C year−1 during the 2010s and showed clear seasonal and spatial variations. Organic carbon flux decreased in both quantity and proportion of the total carbon flux from 40.9% in 1960s to 14.9% in 2010s, reflecting the important impact of dam impoundment. DIC flux was also reduced over this period potentially as a consequence of carbonate precipitation in the irrigated, agricultural land and the reduction of the Red River water discharge toward the sea. These decreases in TSS and carbon fluxes are probably partially responsible for different negatives impacts observed in the coastal zone.


Carbon fluxes Dam impoundment POC Red river Vietnam 



The authors would like to thank the financial supports of the Vietnam’s National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED-Vietnam, 105.09-2012.10 project), the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN) (ARCP2014-03CMY-Quynh/ARCP2013-06CMY-Quynh/ARCP2012-11NMY-Quynh project) and the International foundation for Science (IFS) W4210/2 project.

Supplementary material

12665_2018_7851_MOESM1_ESM.doc (62 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 62 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Natural Product ChemistryVietnam Academy of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.Research Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable DevelopmentHanoiVietnam
  3. 3.iEES-Paris, Institut d’Ecologie et des Sciences de l’Environnement de Paris, (IRD, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, INRA, UPEC, Université Paris Diderot), CC237ParisFrance
  4. 4.Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 7590, UR 206, BP A5NouméaFrance
  5. 5.Analytical Chemistry DepartmentUniversity of Sciences of Ho Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  6. 6.Institute of Environmental TechnologyVietnam Academy of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  7. 7.Electric Power UniversityHanoiVietnam

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