Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, 77:652 | Cite as

X-ray micro-computed tomography study of the propagation of cracks in shale during uniaxial compression

  • Baicun Yang
  • Lei Xue
  • Ke Zhang
Original Article
  • 91 Downloads

Abstract

An understanding of crack propagation is critical for the development of rock mechanic models. To study the propagation of internal cracks in situ and determine their formation mechanism, a series of uniaxial compression tests on shale specimens were conducted using a novel setup that combines X-ray micro-computed tomography (X-ray micro-CT) with a uniaxial loading apparatus, which allows CT scans to be performed during compression. Macro- and micro-scale internal cracks were extracted from CT images collected after various stages of deformation through image thresholding segmentation, providing a record of the evolution of damage within the specimens, characterized by crack closure, generation, growth, and penetration. In addition, macroscopic cracks with two distinct orientations were observed and their formation mechanism was further determined. Furthermore, test results show that the distribution of pyrite grains influences the formation of cracks at the meso- and macro-scales. These results are significant for understanding crack propagation and the failure of shale.

Keywords

X-ray micro-CT Crack propagation Damage evolution Failure mechanism En echelon cracks 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant no. XDB10030302). We thank Jin Hao for experimental support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

References

  1. Ashby MF, Hallam SD (1986) The failure of brittle solids containing small cracks under compressive stress states. Acta Metall 34(3):497–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Belytschko T, Black T (1999) Elastic crack growth in finite elements with minimal remeshing. Int J Numer Meth Eng 45(5):601–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bobet A, Einstein HH (1998) Fracture coalescence in rock-type materials under uniaxial and biaxial compression. Int J Rock Mech Min 35(7):863–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carter BJ, Lajtai EZ, Yuan YG (1992) Tensile fracture from circular cavities loaded in compression. Int J Fracture 57(3):221–236Google Scholar
  5. Chang SH, Lee CI (2004) Estimation of cracking and damage mechanisms in rock under triaxial compression by moment tensor analysis of acoustic emission. Int J Rock Mech Min 41(7):1069–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Duan YT, Li X, He JM, Li SD, Zhou RQ (2018) Quantitative analysis of meso–damage evolution for shale under in situ uniaxial compression conditions. Environ Earth Sci 77(4):154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eftekhari M, Baghbanan A, Hashemolhosseini H (2016) Crack propagation in rock specimen under compressive loading using extended finite element method. Arab J Geosci 9(2):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Feng XT, Chen S, Zhou H (2004) Real-time computerized tomography (CT) experiments on sandstone damage evolution during triaxial compression with chemical corrosion. Int J Rock Mech Min 41(2):181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ge XR, Ren JX, Pu YS, Ma W, Zhu YL (1999) A real-in-time CT triaxial testing study of meso-damage evolution law of coal. Chin J Rock Mechan Eng 5:497–502 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  10. Huang ML, Feng XT, Wang SL (2002) Numerical simulation of propagation and coalescence processes of multi-crack in different rock media. Rock Soil Mechanics 23(2):142–146 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  11. Kachanov ML (1982) A microcrack model of rock inelasticity part I: frictional sliding on microcracks. Mech Mater 1(1):19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kawakata H, Cho A, Yanagidani T, Shimada M (2000) Gross structure of a fault during its formation process in Westerly granite. Tectonophysics 323(1):61–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lajtai EZ, Carter BJ, Duncan EJS (1994) En echelon crack-arrays in potash salt rock. Rock Mech Rock Eng 27(2):89–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li X, Duan YT, Li SD, Zhou RQ (2017) Study on the progressive failure characteristics of Longmaxi Shale under uniaxial compression conditions by X-ray micro-computed tomography. Energies 10:303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Meggiolaro MA, Miranda ACO, Castro JTP, Martha LF (2005) Stress intensity factor equations for branched crack growth. Eng Fract Mech 72(17):2647–2671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nolenhoeksema RC, Gordon RB (1997) Optical-detection of crack patterns in the opening-mode fracture of marble. Int J Rock Mech Min 24(2):135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Renghini C, Komlev V, Fiori F, Verné E, Baino F, Vitale-Brovarone C (2009) Micro-CT studies on 3-D bioactive glass–ceramic scaffolds for bone regeneration. Acta Biomater 5(4):1328–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shen BT, Stephansson O, Einstein HH, Ghahreman B (1995) Coalescence of fractures under shear stresses in experiments. J Geophys Res-Sol Ea 100(B4):5975–5990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tang CA, Huang ML, Zhang GM, Jiao MR (2001) Numerical simulation on propagation, interaction and coalescence of multi-cracks in rocks. Earthquake 62(5):290–298Google Scholar
  20. Yang GS, Xie DY, Zhang CQ (1998) The quantitative analysis of distribution regulation of CT values of rock damage. Chin J Rock Mechan Eng 3:279–285 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  21. Yukutake H (1989) Fracturing process of granite inferred from measurements of spatial and temporal variations in velocity during triaxial deformations. J Geophys Res-Sol Ea 94(B11):15639–15651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zhou ZB (2001) The principle of minimum dissipative energy and its application. Science press, Beijing, pp: 1–160 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Zhu WS, Chen WZ, Shen J (1998) Simulation experiment and fracture mechanism study on propagation of echelon pattern cracks. Acta Mech Solida Sin 19:75–80Google Scholar
  24. Zuo J, Wang X, Mao D (2014) SEM in-situ study on the effect of offset-notch on basalt cracking behavior under three-point bending load. Eng Fract Mech 131:504–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and GeophysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Institutions of Earth ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations