Developing a landslide susceptibility map based on remote sensing, fuzzy logic and expert knowledge of the Island of Lefkada, Greece

  • Paraskevas Tsangaratos
  • Constantinos Loupasakis
  • Konstantinos Nikolakopoulos
  • Varvara Angelitsa
  • Ioanna Ilia
Original Article


The main objective of the study was to develop a novel expert-based approach in order to construct a landslide susceptibility map for the Island of Lefkada, Greece. The developed methodology was separated into two actions. The first action involved the construction of a landslide inventory map and the second the exploitation of expert knowledge and the use of fuzzy logic to produce a landslide susceptibility map. Two types of movements were analyzed: rapid moving slides that involve rock falls and rock slides and slow to very slow moving slides. The landslide inventory map was constructed through an evaluation procedure that involved the use of a group of experts, who analyzed data acquired from remote sensing techniques supplemented by landslide records and fieldwork data. During the second action an expert-driven model was developed for identifying the tendency of landslide occurrences concerning both types of movements. A set of casual variables was selected, namely: lithological units, slope angle, slope orientation, distance from tectonic features, distance from hydrographic network and distance from road network. The performance and validation of the developed model were compared with models that are constructed on the bases of each expert’s judgment. The results proved that the most accurate and reliable outcomes are obtained from the aggregated values assigned by the group of experts and not from the individual values assigned by each expert. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the models constructed by the expert’s group was 0.873 for prediction curves of rapid moving slides and 0.812 for prediction rate curves of slow to very slow moving slides, respectively. These values were much higher than those obtained by each expert. From the outcomes of the study it is clear that the produced landslide susceptibility maps could provide valuable information during landslide risk assessments at the Island of Lefkada.


Landslide susceptibility Lefkada Greece Fuzzy logic Persistent scatterer interferometry 



The Terrafirma project has funded the SAR imagery processing as well as the geological interpretation presented in this paper. The project is one of the many services supported by the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Service Element Program, promoted and financed by ESA. The project is aimed at providing civil protection agencies, local authorities and disaster management organisms with support in the process of risk assessment and mitigation by using the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Tele-Rilevamento Europa for having processed the SAR data.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (RAR 1381 KB)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, Department of Geological Sciences, School of Mining and Metallurgical EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Geological Division of Applied Geology and GeophysicsUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece

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