Heat contamination in groundwater sourced from heat pump for heating in Bratislava (Slovakia)’s historic centre

  • Marian Marschalko
  • David Krčmář
  • Isik YilmazEmail author
  • Renáta Fľaková
  • Zlatica Ženišová
Original Article


The aim of the study is to evaluate the warming effect (thermal contamination) of city centres with high building density. This phenomenon has a number of scientific and practical implications. The case study was conducted in Bratislava (Slovakia), in the geological environment of alluvial gravels of the Danube River, where a permanent warming of the subsurface in the city centre is experienced, which is mainly affected by high building density and underground utilities. Thanks to this thermal contamination, the heat pumps efficiency is greater in winter, while in summer, their effectiveness is lower. Economically, this negative phenomenon in the case of heat pumps has a positive effect, since it increases energy efficiency during the heating period. This phenomenon is not universal and depends on the specific boundary conditions of the geological settings and hydrogeological conditions.


Groundwater Warming effect Heat pump Alluvial gravels Bratislava Slovakia 



This study was financially supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract No. APVV-14-0174. Authors are also deeply grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their very constructive comments which led to the improvement in the quality of the paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marian Marschalko
    • 1
  • David Krčmář
    • 2
  • Isik Yilmaz
    • 3
    Email author
  • Renáta Fľaková
    • 2
  • Zlatica Ženišová
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Mining and GeologyVŠB-Technical University of OstravaOstravaCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Natural SciencesComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovak Republic
  3. 3.Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringCumhuriyet UniversitySivasTurkey

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