Environmental Earth Sciences

, 76:632 | Cite as

A lumped conceptual approach for modeling hydrological processes: the case of Scopia catchment area, Central Greece

  • Nikos CharizopoulosEmail author
  • Aris Psilovikos
  • Eleni Zagana
Original Article


In the catchment area of Scopia, Central Greece, a lumped applied approach of water balance was accomplished, by applying the Zygos model, which delineates an essential water balance forms. The model is in view of Thornthwaite model, in its modified version. It can be adjusted automatically, with the evolutionary annealing-simplex technique for nonlinear optimization, or manually and the input data are precipitation and the potential evapotranspiration. In the present study, both programmed and manual calibration occurred. Programmed calibration took place, utilizing a specimen of measured runoff values from October 2009 to March 2011. Despite the fact that the Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient (NSC) value was high (0.87), the simulated parameters of water balance had abnormal significance for Scopia catchment area. On the contrary, manual calibration uncovered that the actual evapotranspiration constitutes 64.6% (450.1 mm) of the precipitation. Runoff and percolation represent 20.6% (143.6 mm) and 14.8% (102.9 mm) of the precipitation, respectively. The NSC (0.70) and the validation criteria exhibit an ideal adjustment of simulated to measured runoff, while the hydrological parameters appeared to have a physical significance for the study site. Zygos model connects the emergence of springs with the development of the karstification in the carbonate rocks of the region and affirms the predominance of runoff versus percolation due to the hydrolithological structure of the Scopia catchment. This is related to the presence of episodic floods in the area. The yearly precipitation values were found with an error of 0.2% and are viewed as insignificant.


Hydrognomon software Zygos model Manual calibration Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient Scopia catchment area 



The authors express their grateful acknowledgments to the research team ITIA of the National Technical University of Athens for providing access to software utilized in this study. Appreciations are also expressed to the Ministry of Rural Development and Food and the Ministry of Environment and Energy for providing the data used in this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Mineralogy-GeologyAgricultural University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Ichthyology and Aquatic EnvironmentUniversity of ThessalyVolosGreece
  3. 3.Laboratory of Hydrogeology, Department of GeologyUniversity of PatrasRio, PatrasGreece

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