Evaluation of present-day rainfall simulations over West Africa in CORDEX regional climate models

Original Article


The objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of seven CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs), driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset to simulate the observed rainfall characteristics over West Africa during the period of 1990–2008. The seasonal climatology, annual rainfall cycles, interannual variability, 850 hPa specific humidity, and wind fields of the RCMs outputs were assessed over a number of spatial scales covering three climatically homogenous subregions (Guinea Coast, Savannah, and Sahel) and the entire West Africa domain. The ability of the RCMs to simulate the response to El Nino and La Nina events were further assessed. Results indicate that the RCMs captured the spatial pattern of rainfall and the three distinctive phases of the West African monsoon reasonably. It is worth noting that RCA and CRCM5 failed to distinctively reproduce the monsoon jump while CCLM, HIRHAM, and REMO largely overestimated the amount of the pre- and the post-monsoon rainfall. The analysis also showed significant biases in individual models depending on the subregion and season under consideration. These biases appear to be linked to the model’s failure to resolve convective processes and topography accurately. The majority of the RCMs used were consistent with the ground observation in capturing the dry (wet) conditions associated with the El Nino (La Nina) events. Statistical analysis conclusively revealed that the RCMs performance varies over the subregions and seasons, implying that no single model is best at all time. In general, REGCM3 was found to be the most outstanding of all the RCMs and is therefore recommended for use in rainfall assessment over West Africa.


CORDEX-Africa West African monsoon Climatology Precipitation characteristics 



The authors appreciate WCRP and START for setting up and funding the CORDEX-Africa analysis initiative and the University of Cape Town for leading the training and analysis program. We are very grateful to regional downscaling groups who kindly shared the downscaled data used in this analysis. We are grateful to the services that have operated the TRMM and CRU and also the African rainfall database of the Institute of Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne, Germany, for the provision of the ground observation data. The efforts of Mr. Abolude Akintayo Temiloluwa and the two anonymous reviewers are also acknowledged.


  1. Akinsanola AA, Ogunjobi KO (2015) Recent Homogeneity Analysis and Long Term Spatio-temporal Rainfall Trends in Nigeria. Theor Appl Climatol. doi: 10.1007/s00704-015-1701-x Google Scholar
  2. Akinsanola AA, Ogunjobi KO, Gbode IE, Ajayi VO (2015) Assessing the capabilities of three regional climate models over CORDEX Africa in simulating West African summer monsoon precipitation. Adv Meteorol 2015. doi: 10.1155/2015/935431
  3. Akinsanola AA, Ogunjobi KO, Ajayi VO, Adefisan EA, Omotosho JA, Sanogo S (2016) Meteorol Atmos Phys. doi: 10.1007/s00703-016-0493-6 Google Scholar
  4. Akinsanola AA, Ajayi VO, Adejare AT, Adeyeri OE, Gbode IE, Ogunjobi KO, Nikulin G, Abolude AT (2017) Evaluation of rainfall simulations over West Africa in dynamically downscaled CMIP5 global circulation models. Theor Appl Climatol. doi: 10.1007/s00704-017-2087-8 Google Scholar
  5. Baldauf M, Schulz JP (2004) Prognostic precipitation in the Lokal Modell (LM) of DWD. COSMO Newsletter, No. 4, DWD, Offenbach, Germany, 177–180Google Scholar
  6. Baldauf M, Seifert A, Forstner J, Majewski D, Raschendorfer M, Reinhardt T (2011) Operational convective-scale numerical weather prediction with the COSMO model: description and sensitivities. Mon Weather Rev 139:3887–3905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benoit R, Cote J, Mailhot J (1989) Inclusion of a TKE boundary layer parameterization in the Canadian regional finite-element model. Mon Weather Rev 117:1726–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhatt U (1989) Circulation regimes of rainfall anomalies in the Africa-South Asian monsoon belt. J Climate 2:1133–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Browne NAK, Sylla MB (2012) Regional climate model sensitivity to domain size for the simulation of the West African monsoon rainfall. Int J Geophys. doi: 10.1155/2012/625831 Google Scholar
  10. Burpee RW (1972) The origin and structure of easterly waves in the lower troposphere of North Africa. J Atmos Sci 29:77–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buzzi M, Rotach MW, Raschendorfer M, Holtslag AAM (2011) Evaluation of the COSMO-SC turbulence scheme in a shear-driven stable boundary layer. Meteor Z 20:335–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Christensen OB, Drews M, Christensen JH (2006) The HIRHAM regional climate model version 5. DMI Tech. Rep. 06–17, pp 22Google Scholar
  13. Cuxart J, Bougeault Redelsperger JL (2000) A turbulence scheme allowing for mesoscale and large-eddy simulations. Q J R Meteorol Soc 126:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dee DP et al (2011) The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137:553–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Delage Y (1997) Parameterising sub-grid scale vertical transport in atmospheric models under statically stable conditions. Bound Layer Meteorol 82:23–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Diallo I, Sylla MB, Camara M, Gaye AT (2012) Interannual variability of rainfall and circulation features over the Sahel based on multiple regional climate models simulations. Appl Climatol, Theor. doi: 10.1007/s00704-012-0791-y Google Scholar
  17. Diallo I, Sylla MB, Camara M (2013) Gaye AT (2013) Interannual variability of rainfall and circulation features over the Sahel based on multiple regional climate models simulations. Theor Appl Climatol 113(1–2):351–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dickinson RE, Henderson-Sellers A, Kennedy PJ (1993) Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) version 1E as coupled to the NCAR community climate model. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-387+STR. doi: 10.5065/D67W6959
  19. Doms G, Forstner J, Heise E, Herzog HJ, Raschendorfer M, Schrodin R, Reinhardt T, Vogel G (2007) A description of the nonhydrostatic regional model LM (version 3.20).Part II: Physical parameterization. Consortium for Small Scale Modelling Rep, p 161Google Scholar
  20. Druyan LM, Feng J, Cook KH, Xue Y, Fulakeza M, Hagos SM, Konaré A, Moufouma-Okia W, Rowell DP, Vizy EK, Ibrah SS (2010) The WAMME regional model intercomparison study. Clim Dyn 35(1):175–192. doi: 10.1007/s00382-009-0676-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Edwards JM, Slingo A (1996) Studies with a flexible new radiation code. I: choosing a configuration for a large-scale model. Q J R Meteorol Soc 122:689–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Essery RLH, Best MJ, Betts RA, Cox PM (2003) Explicit representation of sub grid heterogeneity in a GCM land surface scheme. J Hydrometeor 4:530–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fink AH, Reiner A (2003) Spatiotemporal variability of the relation between African easterly waves and West African squall lines in 1998 and 1999. J Geophys Res 108(D11):4332. doi: 10.1029/2002JD002816 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fink AH, Vincent DG, Ermert V (2006) Rainfall types in the West African Sudanian zone during the summer monsoon 2002. Mon Weather Rev 134:2143–2164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Flato G, Marotzke J, Abiodun B, Braconnot P, Chou S, Collins W, Cox P, Driouech F, Emori S, Eyring V, Forest C, Glecker P, Guilyardi E, Jacob C, Kattsov V, Reason C, Rummukainen M (2013) Evaluation of Climate Models, in: Climate Change: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  26. Fouquart Y, Bonnel B (1980) Computations of solar heating of the earth’s atmosphere: a new parameterization. Beitr Phys Atmos 53:35–62Google Scholar
  27. Fritsch JM, Chappell CF (1980) Numerical prediction of convectively driven mesoscale pressure systems. Part I: convective parameterization. J Atmos Sci 37:1722–1733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gbobaniyi E, Sarr A, Sylla MB, Diallo I, Lennard C, Dosio A, Dhiediou Kamga A, Klutse NAB, Hewitson B, Nikulin G, Lamptey B (2013) Climatology, annual cycle and interannual variability of precipitation and temperature in CORDEX simulations over West Africa. Int J Climatol 34:2241–2257. doi: 10.1002/joc.3834 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Giannini A, Saravanan R, Chang P (2003) Oceanic forcing of Sahel rainfall on interannual to interdecadal timescales. Science 302:1027–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Giorgetta M, Wild M (1995) The water vapour continuum and its representation in ECHAM4. MPI Rep. 162, p 38Google Scholar
  31. Giorgi F, Jones C, Asrar GR (2009) Addressing climate information needs at the regional level: the CORDEX framework. World Meteorol Org Bull 58:175Google Scholar
  32. Gregory D, Allen S (1991) The effect of convective downdraughts upon NWP and climate simulations. In: 9th Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, Denver, CO, American Meteorological Society pp 122–123Google Scholar
  33. Gregory D, Rowntree PR (1990) A mass flux convection scheme with representation of cloud ensemble characteristics and stability-dependent closure. Mon Weather Rev 118:1483–1506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grell GA (1993) Prognostic evaluation of assumptions used by cumulus parameterizations. Mon Weather Rev 121:764–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hagemann S (2002) An improved land surface parameter dataset for global and regional climate models. MPI Rep. 336, p 21Google Scholar
  36. Harris I, Jones PD, Osborn TJ, Lister DH (2014) Updated high resolution grids of monthly climatic observations—the CRU TS3.10 dataset. Int J Clim 34:623–642. doi: 10.1002/joc.3711 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hastenrath S (1990) The relationship of highly reflective clouds to tropical climate anomalies. J. Climate 3:353–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Herzog HJ, Vogel G, Schubert U (2002) LLM–a nonhydrostatic model applied to high-resolving simulations of turbulent fluxes over heterogeneous terrain. Theor Appl Climatol 73:67–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL, Jones PG, Jarvis A (2005) Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. Int J Climatol 25(15):1965–1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Holtslag AAM, de Bruijn EIF, Pan HL (1990) A high resolution air mass transformation model for short-range weather forecasting. Mon Weather Rev 118:1561–1575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Huffman GJ, Adler RF et al (2001) Global precipitation at one-degree daily resolution from multisatellite observations. J Hydrometeorol 2(1):36–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jacob D (2001) A note to the simulation of the annual and interannual variability of the water budget over the Baltic Sea drainage basin. Meteorol Atmos Phys 77:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jacob D, Barring L, Christensen OB, Christensen JH, de Castro M, Deque M, Giorgi F, Hagemann S, Hirschi M, Jones R, Kjellstrom E, Lenderink G, Rockel B, Sanchez E, Schar C, Seneviratne SI, Somot S, van Ulden A, van den Hurk B (2007) An inter-comparison of regional climate models for Europe: model performance in present day climate. Clim Change 81:31–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jenkins GS, Kamga A, Garba A, Diedhiou A, Morris V, Joseph E (2002) Investigating the West African climate system using global/regional climate models. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 83:583–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jones RG, Noguer M, Hassel D, Hudson D, Wilson S, Jenkins G, Mitchell J (2004) Generating high resolution climate change scenarios using PRECIS. Met Office Hadley Centre Handbook, p 40. [Available online at http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/media/pdf/6/5/PRECIS_Handbook.pdf.]
  46. Jones C, Giorgi F, Asrar G (2011) The coordinated regional downscaling experiment: CORDEX an international downscaling link to CMIP5CLIVAR Exchanges 16: pp 34–39Google Scholar
  47. Jung G, Kunstmann H (2007) High-resolution regional climate modeling for the Volta region of West Africa. J Geophys Res 112:D23108. doi: 10.1029/2006JD007951 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kain JS, Fritsch JM (1990) A one-dimensional entraining/detraining plume model and its application in convective parameterization. J Atmos Sci 47:2784–2802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kain JS, Fritsch JM (1993) Convective parameterization for mesoscale models: the Kain–Fritsch scheme. The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, Meteor. Monogr. No. 46, Am Meteorol Soc pp 165–170Google Scholar
  50. Kalognomou EA, Lennard C, Shongwe M, Pinto I, Favre A, Kent M, Hewitson B, Dosio A, Nikulin G, Panitz H-J, Büchner M (2013) A diagnostic evaluation of precipitation in CORDEX models over southern Africa. J Clim 26:9477–9506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kiehl JT, Hack JJ, Bonan GB, Boville BA, Briegleb BP, Williamson DL, Rasch PJ (1996) Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-4201STR, p 152Google Scholar
  52. Kim J, Waliser DE, Mattmann C, Goodale C, Hart A, Zimdars P, Crichton D, Jones C, Nikulin G, Hewitson B, Jack C, Lennard C, Favre A (2014) Evaluation of the CORDEX-Africa multi-RCM hindcast: systematic model errors. Clim Dyn 42:1189–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kummerow C, Hong Y, Olson WS, Yang S, Adler RF, McCollum J, Ferraro R, Petty G, Shin DB, Wilheit TT (2001) The evolution of the Goddard profiling algorithm (GPROF) for rainfall estimation from passive microwave sensors. J Appl Met 40:1801–1840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kuo HL (1965) On formation and intensification of tropical cyclones through latent heat release by cumulus convection. J Atmos Sci 22:40–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Le Barb´e L, Lebel T, Tapsoba D (2002) Rainfall variability in West Africa during the years 1950–90. J Clim 15(2):187–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Li J, Barker HW (2005) A radiation algorithm with correlated-k distribution. Part I: local thermal equilibrium. J Atmos Sci 62:286–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lohmann U, Roeckner E (1996) Design and performance of a new cloud microphysics scheme developed for the ECHAM general circulation model. Clim Dyn 12:557–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Louis JF (1979) A parametric model of vertical eddy fluxes in the atmosphere. Bound Layer Meteorol 17:187–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lu J, Delworth TL (2005) Ocean forcing of the late 20th century Sahel drought. Geophys Res Lett 32:L22706. doi: 10.1029/2005GL023316 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McKee TB, Doesken NJ, Kleist J (1993) The relationship of drought frequency and duration of time scales. In: 8th Conference on Applied Climatology, American Meteorological Society, Jan 17–23, 1993, Anaheim CA, pp 179–186Google Scholar
  61. Mlawer EJ, Taubman SJ, Brown PD, Iacono MJ, Clough SA (1997) Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. J. Geophys. Res, 102 (D14), 16 663–16 682Google Scholar
  62. Morcrette JJ, Smith L, Fouquart Y (1986) Pressure and temperature dependence of the absorption in long wave radiation parameterizations. Beitr Phys Atmos 59:455–469Google Scholar
  63. Moron V, Ward MN (1998) ENSO teleconnections with climate variability in the European and African sectors. Weather 53:287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nicholson SE, Entekhabi D (1986) The quasi –periodic behavior of rainfall variability in Africa and its relationship to the southern oscillation. Arch Meteorol Geophys Bio Klimatol series A 34:311–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nicholson SE, Kim J (1997) The relationship of the El Niño-southern oscillation to African rainfall. Int J Climatol 17:117–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nikulin G, Jones C, Giorgi F, Asrar G, Buchner M, Cerezo-Mota R, Christensen OB, Deque M, Fernandez J, Hansler A, van Meijgaard E, Samuelsson P, Sylla MB, Sushama L (2012) Precipitation climatology in an ensemble of CORDEX-Africa regional climate simulations. J Climate 25(18):6057–6078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Omotosho JB, Abiodun BJ (2007) A numerical study of moisture build-up and rainfall over West Africa. Meteorol Appl 14:209–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Paeth H, Hall NM, Gaertner MA, Alonso MD, Moumouni S, Polcher J, Ruti PM, Fink AH, Gosset M, Lebel T, Gaye AT, Rowell DP, Moufouma-Okia W, Jacob D, Rockel B, Giorgi F, Rummukainen M (2011) Progress in regional downscaling of west African precipitation. Atmos Sci Lett 12(1):75–82. doi: 10.1002/asl306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pal JS, Small EE, Eltahir EAB (2000) Simulation of regional-scale water and energy budgets: representation of subgrid cloud and precipitation processes within RegCM. J Geophys Res 105(D24):29 579–29 594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pal JS et al (2007) Regional climate modeling for the developing world: the ICTP RegCM3 and RegCNET. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 88:1395–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (2007) Impacts Adaptation and Vulnerability Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge University Press Cambridge UK 2007Google Scholar
  72. Patricola CM, Cook KH (2007) Dynamics of the West African monsoon under mid-Holocene processional forcing: regional climate model simulations. J Clim 20:694–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pu B, Cook KH (2010) Dynamics of the West African westerly jet. J Clim 23:6263–6276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pu B, Cook KH (2011) Role of the West African Westerly jet in Sahel rainfall variations. J Clim. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00394.1 Google Scholar
  75. Rasch PJ, Kristjansson JE (1998) A comparison of the CCM3 model climate using diagnosed and predicted condensate parameterizations. J Clim 11:1587–1614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rechid D, Raddatz TJ, Jacob D (2009) Parameterization of snow-free land surface albedo as a function of vegetation phenology based on MODIS data and applied in climate modelling. Theor Appl Climatol 95:245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Redelsperger JL, Diongue A, Diedhiou A, Ceron JP, Diop M, Gueremy JF, Lafore JP (2002) Multiscale description of a Sahelian synoptic weather system representative of the West African monsoon. Q J R Meteorol Soc 128:1229–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Redelsperger JL, Thorncroft CD, Diedhiou A, Lebel T, Parker DJ, Polcher J (2006) African monsoon multidisciplinary analysis: an international research project and field campaign. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 87(12):1739–1746. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-87-12-1739 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ritter B, Geleyn JF (1992) A comprehensive radiation scheme of numerical weather prediction with potential application to climate simulations. Mon Weather Rev 120:303–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rockel B, Will A, Hense A (2008) The regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM). Meteorol Z 17:347–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ropelewski CF, Halpert MS (1987) Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Mon Weather Rev 115:1606–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ropelewski CF, Halpert MS (1989) Precipitation pattern associated with the high index phase of the southern oscillation. J Clim 2:268–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rummukainen M (2010) State-of-the-art with regional climate models. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change 1:82–96. doi: 10.1002/wcc8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Samuelsson P, Gollvik S, Ullerstig A (2006) The land-surface scheme of the Rossby Centre regional atmospheric climate model (RCA3).SMHI Rep. Met. 122, p 25Google Scholar
  85. Samuelsson P, Jones CG, Willen U, Ullerstig A, Gollvik S, Hansson U, Jansson C, Kjellstrom E, Nikulin G, Wyser K (2011) The Rossby Centre Regional Climate model RCA3: model description and performance. Tellus 63A:4–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sass BH, Rontu L, Savijarvi H, Raisanen P (1994) HIRLAM-2 radiation scheme: Documentation and tests. SMHI HIRLAM Tech. Rep. 16, p 43Google Scholar
  87. Savijarvi H (1990) A fast radiation scheme for mesoscale model and short-range forecast models. J Appl Meteorol 29:437–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schulz JP, Dumenil L, Polcher J, Schlosser CA, Xue Y (1998) Land surface energy and moisture fluxes: comparing three models. J Appl Meteorol 37:288–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Smith RNB (1990) A scheme for predicting layer clouds and their water content in a general circulation model. Q J R Meteorol Soc 116:435–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sultan B, Janicot S (2000) Abrupt shift of the ITCZ over West Africa and intraseasonal variability. Geophys Res Lett 27:3353–3356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sultan B, Janicot S (2003) The West African monsoon dynamics Part II: The “pre-onset” and “onset” of the summer monsoon. J Clim 16:3407–3427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sundqvist H, Berge E, Kristjansson JE (1989) Condensation and cloud parameterization studies with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. Mon Weather Rev 117:1641–1657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sylla MB, Diallo I, Pal JS (2013) West African monsoon in state-of the-art regional climate models In Climate Variability—Regional and Thematic Patterns Tarhule A (ed) ISBN: 980-953-307-816-3Google Scholar
  94. Taylor KE (2001) Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram. J Geophys Res 106(D7):7183–7192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Thorncroft CD, Nguyen H, Zhang C, Peyrille P (2011) Annual cycle of the West African monsoon: regional circulations and associated water vapour transport. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137(654):129–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tiedtke M (1989) A comprehensive mass flux scheme for cumulus parameterization in large-scale models. Mon Weather Rev 117:1779–1800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tompkins AM (2002) A prognostic parameterization for the sub grid scale variability of water vapor and clouds in large-scale models and its use to diagnose cloud cover. J Atmos Sci 59:1917–1942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Verseghy DL (2000) The Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS): its history and future. Atmos Ocean 38:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Vizy EK, Cook KH (2001) Mechanisms by which Gulf of Guinea and eastern North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies influence African rainfall. J Clim 14:795–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vizy EK, Cook KH (2002) Development and application of a mesoscale climate model for the tropics: influence of sea surface temperature anomalies on the West African monsoon. J Geophys Res 107(D3):4023. doi: 10.1029/2001JD000686 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zadra A, Caya D, Cote J, Dugas B, Jones C, Laprise R, Winger K, Caron LP (2008) The next Canadian Regional Climate Model. Phys Can 64:75–83Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Energy and EnvironmentCity University of Hong KongKowloon TongHong Kong SAR
  2. 2.Department of Meteorology and Climate ScienceFederal University of Technology AkureAkureNigeria

Personalised recommendations