Environmental Earth Sciences

, 75:1501 | Cite as

Characterization of underground tunnel water hydrochemical system and uses through multivariate statistical methods: a case study from Maddhapara Granite Mine, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

  • M. Farhad HowladarEmail author
  • Md. Mustafizur Rahman
Original Article


A quality study of the drained water from Maddhapara Granite Mine underground tunnel was undertaken to study their hydrochemical variations and suitability for various uses employing chemical analysis, basic statistics, correlation matrix (r), cluster analysis, principal component/factor analyses, and ANOVA as the multivariate statistical methods. The results of chemical analysis of water show the modest variation in their ionic assemblage among different sampling points of the tunnel where Ca–HCO3 type of hydrochemical facies is principally dominated. The correlation matrix shows a very strong to very weak positive, even negative, correlation relationship, suggesting the influence of different processes such as geochemical, biochemical processes, and multiple anthropogenic sources on controlling the hydrochemical evolution and variations of water in the mine area. Cluster analysis confirms that cluster 1 contains 68.75% of total samples, whereas cluster 2 contains 31.25%. On the whole, the dominated chemical ions of first cluster groups are Ca and HCO3, suggesting a natural process similar to dissolution of carbonate minerals. The second cluster group consisted of Cl and SO4 2− ions representing natural and anthropogenic hydrochemical process. The results of PCA/FA analysis illustrate that different processes are involved in controlling the chemical composition of groundwater in the mine area. The factor 1 loadings showed that pH, EC, TDS, Na, Mg, chloride, and sulfate which have high loading in this factor are expected to come from carbonate dissolution to oxidation conditions. One-way ANOVA describes the significance of dependent variables with respect to independent variables. ANOVA gives us the idea that EC, K+, Fetotal, SO 4 2 , As, and Pb are the most important factors in controlling spatial differences in water quality in this tunnel. But different results have been encountered for different independent variables which might be due to dissimilar sources of water. From the qualitative analysis, it is clear that water quality is not very favorable for aquatic creatures as well as for drinking purposes. The water can be used for irrigation purposes without any doubt as SAR and RSC analysis provides good results. Moreover, the results of this research confirmed that the application of multivariate statistical analysis methods is apposite to inferring complex water quality data sets with its possible pollution sources. At the end, this research recommends (1) as water becomes more and more important, water treatment plants should be built before the water being used; (2) a detailed water step utilization plan should be set beforehand to guarantee tunnel water being used effectively; and (3) after the water being used for agriculture, elements in crops should be monitored continuously to ensure that ions and compounds that come from the tunnel water are lower than guideline values for human beings health.


Maddhapara Granite Mining Project Correlation matrix (rCluster analysis Principal component analyses ANOVA Quality of water 



The authors are very much grateful to Professor Dr. Gunter Doerhoefer, Editor in-Chief for his kind cooperation for the publication of the research. The anonymous four reviewers made valuable comments, criticism and suggestion which improve the original manuscript significantly. The authors gratefully express their gratitude for the thoughtful and thorough reviews. Authors are also deeply thankful to Maddhapara Hard Rock Mine Authority for providing necessary data and support for collecting samples for this research. The authors would like to thank to the Ministry of Education, Bangladesh, for the partial financial support to the successful completion of the research work; otherwise, it was beyond our reach.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Petroleum and Mining EngineeringShahjalal University of Science and TechnologySylhetBangladesh

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