Environmental Earth Sciences

, 75:1390 | Cite as

Occurrence and distribution of selected potentially toxic elements in soils of playing sites: a case study from Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia

  • Edgar Hiller
  • Lucia Lachká
  • Ľubomír Jurkovič
  • Ondrej Ďurža
  • Katarína Fajčíková
  • Jaroslav Vozár
Original Article

Abstract

This study investigates the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) in soils collected at playing sites in kindergartens and urban parks in Bratislava city. It was found that the history of urban development was an important factor influencing the occurrence of PTEs in soils. The mean concentrations of PTEs were two times higher (mean of 215 mg/kg for the sum of PTEs) in the oldest urban parts than in urban parts of the city with younger history (mean of 110 mg/kg). Significant positive correlations between the concentrations of Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn and total organic carbon content (Spearman r = 0.23–0.49; α < 0.05–0.001), as well as between the As, Cu, Pb, Zn concentrations and the total Fe content (Spearman r = 0.27–0.55; α < 0.05–0.001) indicated that soil characteristics had also influenced the distributions of PTEs in soils. The values of enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF) were higher than 1.5 and 1.0, respectively, confirming an anthropogenic contribution to the total concentrations of PTEs in soils. It is expected that there is no non-carcinogenic health risk to children due to exposure to PTEs in soils as the calculated values of hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) did not exceed the threshold of 1.0.

Keywords

Potentially toxic elements Urban soil Contamination Slovakia 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported financially by the Scientific Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education of Slovak Republic and the Academy of Sciences (VEGA No. 1/0038/14) and by the grant from Comenius University in Bratislava No. 15/130/00. The authors acknowledge all directors of kindergartens who allowed us to collect the soil samples at playing sites. We thank the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and recommendations to improve and support the manuscript. The authors thank Ray Marshall for thorough reviews of the English language in this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12665_2016_6210_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (577 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 576 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geochemistry, Faculty of Natural SciencesComenius University in BratislavaBratislavaSlovak Republic
  2. 2.Department of Environmental GeochemistryState Geological Institute of Dionýz ŠtúrBratislavaSlovak Republic
  3. 3.Ecological Laboratories, EL Ltd.Spišská Nová VesSlovak Republic

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