Environmental Earth Sciences

, 75:1335 | Cite as

CO2 mineralization using basic oxygen furnace slag: process optimization by response surface methodology

  • Yong Sun
  • Gang Yang
  • Kevin Li
  • Lai-Chang Zhang
  • Lian Zhang
Original Article


The basic oxygen furnace steelmaking slag (SL) is employed for CO2 mineralization. Response surface methodology and the central composite design were employed in determining the optimal condition. The optimization goal in this paper has been set for maximum CO2 capturing. It was found that the reaction temperature and CO2 pressure and their combination were significant. A quadratic model was developed for process optimization and statistical experimental designs. The CO2 capture capacity could reach 126 g CO2/kg SL at optimal condition. The increased reaction temperature will lead to an obvious decrease of CaCO3 and increase of MgCO3. If deployed, this optimized indirect CO2 mineral sequestration process could permanently capture 252,000 tons of CO2 per annum based upon current 2 million tons of SL productivity per annum.


Steelmaking slag CO2 mineral sequestration Statistical analysis Optimization 

List of symbols

\( a \)

Benedict–Webb–Rubin coefficient (−)

\( a^{*} \)

Benedict–Webb–Rubin coefficient (−)

\( A_{0} \)

Benedict–Webb–Rubin coefficient (−)

\( b \)

Benedict–Webb–Rubin coefficient (−)

\( B_{0} \)

Benedict–Webb–Rubin coefficient (−)

\( c \)

Benedict–Webb–Rubin coefficient (−)

\( C_{0} \)

Benedict–Webb–Rubin coefficient (−)

\( d_{0} \)

Intercept coefficient (−)

\( d_{i} \)

Linear coefficient (−)

\( d_{ii} \)

Quadratic coefficient (−)

\( f \)

CO2 fugacity (Mpa)

\( P \)

Pressure (Mpa)

\( R \)

Pressure gases constant (0.00831 kJ mol−1 K−1)

\( T \)

Temperature (K)

\( V_{{{\text{CO}}_{ 2} }} \)

CO2 volume (m−3)

\( X_{i} \)

Independent variables (−)

\( Y \)

Predicted response (%)

\( z \)

Compressed factor (−)



Analysis of variance


Central composite design


Response surface methodology

Greek symbols

\( \phi \)

Fugacity coefficient (−)

\( \alpha \)

Benedict–Webb–Rubin coefficient (−)

\( \alpha^{*} \)

Benedict–Webb–Rubin coefficient (−)

\( \rho \)

Fluid density (mol m−3)

\( \gamma \)

Benedict–Webb–Rubin coefficient (−)



The in-kind contribution from Anpeng High-Tech Alkaline Production Co., Ltd., is highly appreciated. Authors would also like to express appreciation for Professor Yoshihiko Ninomiya at Chubu University of Japan for the reference material analysis by XRF and XRD. The critical comments from three anonymous reviewers in significantly improving the quality of this paper are highly appreciated.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong Sun
    • 1
  • Gang Yang
    • 2
  • Kevin Li
    • 3
  • Lai-Chang Zhang
    • 1
  • Lian Zhang
    • 4
  1. 1.School of EngineeringEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  2. 2.National Engineering Laboratory of Cleaner Production Technology, Institute of Process EngineeringChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.School of Mechanical and Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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