Conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water resources with aquifer recharge by treated wastewater: evaluation of management scenarios in the Zarqa River Basin, Jordan

  • Mustafa El-Rawy
  • Vitaly A. Zlotnik
  • Marwan Al-Raggad
  • Ali Al-Maktoumi
  • Anvar Kacimov
  • Osman Abdalla
Original Article

Abstract

We study the effects of treated wastewater (TWW) discharge into the Zarqa River in Jordan and the underlying unconfined limestone Hummar Aquifer. The main objectives were to develop a conceptual model of the aquifer, to gain better understanding of water dynamics in the basin and to investigate different management scenarios of conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water. The model using MODFLOW 2005 code was developed over a selected part of the Zarqa River Valley of area 387 km2, including the As Samra wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The annual TWW discharge of 110 million m3 significantly augments the groundwater storage and allows for expansion of agricultural practices in the area, providing large reserve during dry spells. On average, the water table rises by 29 m following the inception of the WWTP. The results indicate that the aquifer will be able to accommodate extra discharge of TWW when the plant will operate at full capacity as planned and upon increase in the abstraction rate for irrigation by 30 %, based on farming land availability. This abstraction will result in an average water table drawdown of 0.3 m. Because around 20 % of the discharged TWW only reach the aquifer, we recommend direct use of river water, especially during drought periods to reduce the stress on the aquifer storage and its associated depletion. The simulated conjunctive use and MAR utilizing both TWW and the groundwater present a salient case study of intricate management of water resources in arid zone. Augmentation of groundwater resources by both banking of the TWW and management of water use will allow more agricultural activities that would result in a better income for farming communities and social stability in the MENA region, where water is a precious commodity.

Keywords

Groundwater–surface water interactions Zarqa River As Samra wastewater treatment plant Jordan Conjunctive water use MODFLOW 2005 

Abbreviations

BC

Base case scenario (current situation)

BG

Background scenario

C

River conductance (m2/day)

D

Recharge rate (m3/day)

Depth

Soil depth (m)

Depth_min

Depth of the horizon above the horizon with the lowest hydraulic conductivity (m)

ET

Evapotranspiration (mm/year)

GIS

Geographical information system

H

Stream depth at the gauging station (m)

HBC

Average river water depth for base scenario (m)

HS

Average river water depth for a given scenario (m)

IDW

Inverse distance weighing method

J2000

Hydrological and physical processes-based model of the water balance of large catchment areas

kf_max

Maximum coefficient of hydraulic conductivity (m/day)

kf_min

Minimum coefficient of hydraulic conductivity (m/day)

ks

Hydraulic conductivity of streambed sediments (m/day)

l

Length of the river reach (m)

MAR

Managed aquifer recharge

MENA

Middle East and North Africa

ModelMuse

A graphical user interface for MODFLOW-2005

MODFLOW

Finite-difference groundwater flow model

ms

Thickness of the streambed sediments (m)

MWI

Ministry of Water and Irrigation of Jordan

NE

North East

NRA

Natural Resources Authority, Amman, Jordan

P

Precipitation (mm/year)

Q

River discharge

QTWW

River discharge changes among various scenarios

RIV

River MODFLOW package

Roff

Runoff (mm/year)

SCS

Soil Conservation Service, the United States Department of Agriculture

SID

Soil type ID

STP

Sewage treatment plant

SW

South West

TWW

Treated wastewater

USA

United States of America 

USAID

United States Agency for International Development

USGS

US Geological Survey

w

Width of the river reach (m)

WAJ

Jordan Water Authority, Amman, Jordan

WWTP

Wastewater treatment plant

ΔS

Change in soil water storage in the soil column (mm/year)

References

  1. Abdel-Raouf N, Al-Homaidan AA, Ibraheem IBM (2012) Microalgae and wastewater treatment. Saudi J Biol Sci 19:257–275. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2012.04.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdulla F, Al-Omary F (2008) Impact of climate change on the monthly runoff of a semi-arid catchment: case study Zarqa River Basin (Jordan). J Appl Biol Sci 2:43–50Google Scholar
  3. Al Khamisi SA, Prathapar SA, Ahmed M (2013) Conjunctive use of reclaimed water and groundwater in crop rotations. Agric Water Manag 116:228–234. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2012.07.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al Kuisi M, MashalKh Al-Qinna M, Abu Hamad A, Margana A (2014) Groundwater vulnerability and hazard mapping in an Arid region: case study, Amman-Zarqa Basin (AZB)-Jordan. J Water Resour Prot 6:297–318. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2014.64033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al Mahamid J (2005) Integration of water resources of the upper aquifer in Amman—Zarqa basin based on mathematical modeling and GIS, Jordan. PhD Thesis, Freiberg Online Geology, Germany. http://tu-freiberg.de/fakult3/geo/fog/FOG_Vol_12.pdf
  6. Al-Abdallat G (2011) Effects of improved treatment in khirbet As Samra plant and its effects on the recipient water bodies and irrigated soils. Master thesis, University of Jordan LibraryGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Omari A, Al-Quraan S, Al-Salihi A, Abdulla F (2009) A water management support system for Amman Zarqa Basin in Jordan. Water Resour Manag 23:3165–3189. doi:10.1007/s11269-009-9428-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Al-Qaisi (2011) Climate change effects on water resources in Amman Zarqa Basin—Jordan Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Amman, Jordan. http://www.jeaconf.org/uploadedfiles/document/67a04de3-7eaa-4de5-9d40-5f4debb1efc8.pdf
  9. Al-Sharhan AS, Rizk ZA, Nairn AEM, Bakhit DW, Al-Hajari SA (2001) Hydrogeology of an Arid region: the Arabian Gulf and adjoining areas. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  10. Altz-Stamm A (2012) Jordan’s water resource challenges and the prospects for sustainability. GIS for water resources. http://www.caee.utexas.edu/prof/maidment/giswr2012/TermPaper/Altz-Stamm.pdf
  11. Al-Wer I (2009) The Zarqa River rehabilitation and sustainable management. Master thesis, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  12. Baird K, Maddock T (2005) Simulating riparian evapotranspiration: a new methodology and application for groundwater models. J Hydrol 312:176–190. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.02.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Banta ER (2011) ModelMate—a graphical user interface for model analysis. Techniques and methods 6-E4, USA. Geological Survey, Reston, p 31Google Scholar
  14. Barlow PM, Leake SA (2012) Streamflow depletion by wells—understanding and managing the effects of groundwater pumping on streamflow. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1376. http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1376/
  15. Barlow PM, Moench AF (1998) Analytical solutions and computer programs for hydraulic interaction of stream-aquifer systems. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-415A. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1998/0415a/report.pdf
  16. Barlow PM, DeSimone LA, Moench AF (2000) Aquifer response to stream-stage and recharge variations II. Convolution method and applications. J Hydrol 230:211–229. doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00176-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bender F (1968) Geology of Jordan. Beitrage zur Regionalen Geologie der Erde, Berlin. Gebruder Borntraeger 7:1–32Google Scholar
  18. Bouwer H (1970) Groundwater recharge design for renovating wastewater. J Sanit Eng Div 96:59–74Google Scholar
  19. Bridge J, Demicco R (2008) Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. doi:10.1002/jqs.1323 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cheng Y, Lee C-H, Tan Y-C, Yeh H-F (2009) An optimal water allocation for an irrigation district in Pingtung Country, Taiwan. Irrig Drain 58:287–306. doi:10.1002/ird.411 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chow VT, Maidment DR, Mays LW (1988) Applied hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Courcier R, Venot J P, Molle F (2005) Historical transformations of the lower Jordan River basin (in Jordan): Changes in water use and projections (1950–2025). Comprehensive Assessment Research Report 9. Comprehensive Assessment Secretariat, Colombo, Sri LankaGoogle Scholar
  23. Dingman SL (2015) Physical Hydrology, 3rd edn. Long Grove, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  24. Ejaz MS, Peralta RC (1995) Maximizing conjunctive use of surface and ground water under surface water quality constraints. Adv Water Resour 18:67–75. doi:10.1016/0309-1708(95)00004-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Feigin A, Ravina I, Shalhevet J (1991) Irrigation with treated sewage effluent. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Giacomelli A, Giupponi C, Paniconi C (2001) Agricultural impacts on groundwater: processes, modelling and decision support. In: Dosi C (ed) Agricultural use of groundwater. Springer, Berlin, pp 35–75. doi:10.1007/978-94-015-9781-4_3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Harbaugh AW (2005) MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model—the ground-water flow process. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A16.U.S. Geological Survey, RestonGoogle Scholar
  28. Harbaugh AW, Banta E, Hill MC, McDonald MG (2000) MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model—user guide to modularization concepts and the ground-water flow process. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-92Google Scholar
  29. Hayder Consulting (2006) Alternative urban supplies regulatory review, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) technical Report, Victorian Govt Report No: VC02161-01-MAR Rpt Final, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  30. Healy RW (2010) Estimating groundwater recharge. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hjelmfelt AT (1991) Investigation of the curve number procedure. J Hydr Eng, ASCE 117:725–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hötzl H, Möller P, Rosenthal E (eds) (2009) The water of the Jordan valley. Scarcity and deterioration of groundwater and its impact on the regional development. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  33. Im H, Yeo I, Maeng SK, Park CH, Choi H (2016) Simultaneous attenuation of pharmaceuticals, organic matter, and nutrients in wastewater effluent through managed aquifer recharge: batch and column studies. Chemosphere 143:135–141. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.10.104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jensen ME, Burman RD, Allen RG (eds) (1990) Evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirements. Am Soc Civ Eng Manuals Rep Eng Pract. No. 70, ISBN 0-87262-763-2Google Scholar
  35. Kalbus E, Reinstorf F, Schirmer M (2006) Measuring methods for groundwater–surface water interactions: a review. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 10:873–887. doi:10.5194/hess-10-873-2006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Khare D, Jat MK, Sunder JD (2007) Assessment of water resources allocation options: conjunctive use planning in a link canal command. Resour Conserv Recy 51:487–506. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2006.09.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ko MS, Cho K, Jeong D, Lee S (2016) Identification of the microbes mediating Fe reduction in a deep saline aquifer and their influence during managed aquifer recharge. Sci Total Environ 545–546:486–492. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kralisch S, Krause P, Fink M, Fischer C, Flügel W-A (2007) Component based environmental modelling using the JAMS framework. In: MODSIM 2007 international congress on modelling and simulation, pp 812–818, peer reviewedGoogle Scholar
  39. Liu L, Cui Y, Luo Y (2013) Integrated modeling of conjunctive water use in a canal well irrigation district in the lower Yellow River Basin, China. J Irrig Drain Eng 139:775–784. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000620 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Margane A, Hobler M, Al-Momani M, Subah A (2002) Contributions to the hydrogeology of Northern and Central Jordan. Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe und Staatliche Geologische in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Stuttgart. ISBN 3-510-95890-XGoogle Scholar
  41. McDonald MG, Harbaugh AW (1988) A modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model. In: Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey, Book 6, Chapter A1, p 586 Google Scholar
  42. MOA—Ministry of Agriculture (1993) National soil map and land use project. The soils of Jordan. Hunting Technical services Ltd. In association with Soil Survey and Land. Research Center, vol 2Google Scholar
  43. Montazar A, Riazi H, Behbahani SM (2010) Conjunctive water use planning in an irrigation command area. Water Resour Manag 24:577–596. doi:10.1007/s11269-009-9460-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. MWI—Ministry of Water and Irrigation (2009) Water for life: Jordan’s water strategy, 2008–2022. http://web.idrc.ca/uploads/user-S/12431464431JO_Water-Strategy09.pdf
  45. MWI—Ministry of Water and Irrigation (2013) Jordan water sector facts and figures. http://www.mwi.gov.jo/sites/en-us/Documents/W.%20in%20Fig.E%20FINAL%20E.pdf
  46. MWI—Ministry of Water and Irrigation (2014) Water Information System. Hydrological, geological and hydrogeological data bank. Water Resources and Planning Directorate, Amman, JordanGoogle Scholar
  47. MWI—Ministry of Water and Irrigation (2015) Data bank in Excel sheetsGoogle Scholar
  48. Nepal S (2012) Evaluating upstream–downstream linkages of hydrological dynamics in the Himalayan region. PhD Thesis, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Jena, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  49. NRA-Natural Resources Authority (1993) The geology of Swaileh area. Map sheet No. 3154 II. NRA, Amman, JordanGoogle Scholar
  50. NRA-Natural Resources Authority (1998) The geology of Zarqa Area. Map sheet No. 3254 III. NRA, Amman, JordanGoogle Scholar
  51. O’Geen A, Saal M, Dahlke H, Doll D, Elkins R, Fulton A, Fogg G, Harter T, Hopmans J, Ingels C, Niederholzer F (2015) Soil suitability index identifies potential areas for groundwater banking on agricultural lands. Calif Agric 69:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Poeter EP, Hill MC, Banta ER, Mehl S, Christensen S (2005) UCODE_2005 and six other computer codes for universal sensitivity analysis, calibration, and uncertainty evaluation: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A11Google Scholar
  53. Rahman MA, Rusteberg B, Uddin MS, Lutz A, Saada MA, Sauter M (2013) An integrated study of spatial multicriteria analysis and mathematical modelling for managed aquifer recharge site suitability mapping and site ranking at Northern Gaza coastal aquifer. J Environ Manag 124:25–39. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.03.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. SCS: Soil Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture (2004) National engineering handbook. Section 4, hydrology. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  55. Seiler K-P, Gat JR (2007) Groundwater recharge from run-off, infiltration and percolation. Springer, Berlin 248p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Seyoum WM, Eckstein Y (2014) Hydraulic relationships between buried valley sediments of the glacial drift and adjacent bedrock formations in northeastern Ohio, USA. Hydrog J 22:1193–1206. doi:10.1007/s10040-014-1128-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Singh A (2014) Conjunctive use of water resources for sustainable irrigated agriculture. J Hydrol 519:1688–1697. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.09.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Surapaneni A, Olsson KA (2002) Sodification under conjunctive water use in the Shepparton irrigation region of northern Victoria: a review. Aust J Exp Agric 42:249–263. doi:10.1071/EA00179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. USAID, MWI (2001) Characterization of wastewater effluent in the Amman-Zarqa Basin (water reuse component). Water resource policy support activity, plan for managing water reuse in the Amman-Zarqa Basin and the Jordan Valley. United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through a contract with Association in Rural Development Inc., (ARD). Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Jordan. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacp558.pdf
  60. Wagner W (2011) Groundwater in the Arab Middle East. Springer, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. WAJ- Jordan Water Authority (2006) Annual report. Amman, JordanGoogle Scholar
  62. WAJ- Jordan Water Authority (2013) Annual report. Amman, JordanGoogle Scholar
  63. Winston RB (2009) ModelMuse—A graphical user interface for MODFLOW/2005 and PHAST. Techniques and Methods—6-A29, U.S. Geological Survey. Reston. http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/tm6A29
  64. Winter TC, Harvey JW, Franke OL, Alley WM (1998) Ground water and surface water: a single resource. U.S. Geological Survey, Circular 1139Google Scholar
  65. Woessner WW (2000) Stream and fluvial plain ground water interactions: rescaling hydrogeologic thought. Ground Water 38:423–429. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2000.tb00228.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mustafa El-Rawy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vitaly A. Zlotnik
    • 3
  • Marwan Al-Raggad
    • 4
  • Ali Al-Maktoumi
    • 5
  • Anvar Kacimov
    • 5
  • Osman Abdalla
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringMinia UniversityMiniaEgypt
  2. 2.Departmentof Hydrology and Hydraulic EngineeringVrije Universiteit BrusselBrusselsBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnLincolnUSA
  4. 4.Water, Energy and Environment CenterUniversity of JordanAmmanJordan
  5. 5.Sultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman

Personalised recommendations