Reactive ditches: A simple approach to implement denitrifying wood chip bioreactors to reduce nitrate exports into aquatic ecosystems?

  • Matthias Pfannerstill
  • Insa Kühling
  • Cindy Hugenschmidt
  • Michael Trepel
  • Nicola Fohrer
Thematic Issue
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Water in Germany

Abstract

Despite intensive efforts motivated by the European Water Framework Directive, many water bodies still suffer from poor water quality in Germany. Intensively drained agricultural areas are still a critical source for nitrate which is responsible for negative effects on aquatic ecosystems. Basic measures such as the fertiliser ordinance are expected to be not sufficient to completely eliminate nitrate exports via drainage tiles and ditches. Consequently, there is the demand to manage the reduction of nitrate concentrations with new additional end of pipe solutions. For this, the presented study focuses on a simply to implement reactive ditch for denitrification, which is installed into drainage ditches to reduce nitrate concentrations. An existing drainage ditch that is fed by tile drainage water was filled with wood chips to keep installation efforts as simple and cheap as possible. In situ parameters and nutrient concentrations were determined at the inflow and the outflow of the reactive ditch for 2 years. The results reveal a promising potential for wood chip-based filters to reduce nitrate concentrations by 28 % on average over all seasons. Within the filter, favourable conditions for denitrification were predominantly found without flooding of surrounding areas. Investigations revealed decreasing nitrate concentrations especially in cases of low flow rates and high temperatures. These encouraging results demonstrate the successful application of reactive ditches under German lowland conditions in general. Since tile drainages are installed for many agricultural areas in this region, there seems to be high potential for the application of this easily implementable type of bioreactor.

Keywords

Wood chip filter Denitrification Bioreactor Nitrate Reactive ditch 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are thankful to the State Agency for Agriculture, the Environment and Rural Areas of the federal state Schleswig-Holstein for co-funding our studies. Furthermore we thank J. Golon for his contribution of designing and implementing the reactive ditch system.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Natural Resource Conservation, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources ManagementKiel UniversityKielGermany
  2. 2.Working Group Sustainable Agro-EcosystemsUniversity of Applied Sciences OsnabrückOsnabrückGermany
  3. 3.Ministerium für Energiewende, Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und ländliche Räume des Landes Schleswig-HolsteinKielGermany
  4. 4.StadeGermany

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