Advertisement

Experimental study on the solar reflectance of crushed rock layer with different sizes

  • Yinghong Qin
  • Kanghao Tan
  • Jia Liang
  • Yunfeng Li
  • Fanghua Li
Original Article

Abstract

A crushed rock layer is often reveted on a cold-region embankment side slope to keep the underlying permafrost layer cool. However, its cooling effect is strongly affected by the solar absorption of this layer. This study proposes a procedure for measuring the albedo of a heterogeneous surface like a crushed rock layer. The albedo of crushed rock layers with different aggregate sizes is measured. It is found that the albedo of the crushed rock layer decreases with the aggregate size and that the albedo of the crushed rock layer is 0.1–0.2 lower than the albedo of the fresh flat rock. This is because the multiple reflections in the inter-aggregate cavity increase the solar absorption of the layer. Painting the crushed rock layer with high-reflective pigments can increase the albedo of the layer about 0.10–0.20, with the greater increase for the layer with the larger aggregate size.

Keywords

Albedo Limestone High-reflective pigment Multiple reflections Spectral reflectance Aggregate size 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41561015) and by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry [Grant No. 2014(1685)]. The writer greatly thanks for two anonymous referees for their comments to improve this paper.

References

  1. Akbari H, Levinson R, Stern S (2008) Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved roofing assemblies. Sol Energy 82:648–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ASTM-C1459-04 (2014) Standard specification for performance of non-asbestos fiber-reinforced cement shake, shingle, and slate roofing systems. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  3. Beaulac I, Dore G (2006) Development of a new heat extraction method to reduce permafrost degradation under roads and airfields. In: 13 International Conference on Cold Regions Engineering, Orono, Maine, USA, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  4. Beaulac I, Dore G (2006) Permafrost degradation and adaptations of airfields and access roads Nunavik, Quebec, Canada. Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Transportation Association of Canada, 2006 Transportation Association of Canada, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, p 20Google Scholar
  5. Berdahl P, Akbari H, Jacobs J, Klink F (2008) Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt shingles. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 92:482–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berg RL, Esch DC (1983) Effect of color ad texture on the surface temperature of asphalt concrete pavement. In: 4th International Conference on Permafrost. National Academy Pressure, Fairbank, AK, USA, pp 57-61Google Scholar
  7. Bjella K (2013a) An investigation into a white painted airfield on permafrost: Thule Air Base, Greenland. In: Zufelt JE (ed) ISCORD 2013, 10th International Symposium on Cold Regions Development. ASCE, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, pp 565–575Google Scholar
  8. Bjella K (2013b) Thule Air Base airfield white painting and permafrost investigation phases I–IV. ERDC/CRREL TR-13-8. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Cente, Hanover, p 88Google Scholar
  9. Cheng G, Lai Y, Sun Z, Jiang F (2007) The ‘thermal semi-conductor’ effect of crushed rocks. Permafrost Periglac Process 18:151–160. doi: 10.1002/ppp.575 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheng G, Sun Z, Niu F (2008) Application of the roadbed cooling approach in Qinghai–Tibet railway engineering. Cold Reg Sci Technol 53:241–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dore G, Zubeck HK (2009) Cold regions pavement engineering. ASCE Press Mc-Graw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Fortier R, Arenson LU, Niu F, Doré G, Varlamov SP, Zabolotnik S, Ingeman-Nielsen T, St-Laurent JF (2012) Engineering test sections in permafrost environment: performance of permafrost protection measures and mitigation techniques to permafrost degradation. In: Drozdov DS (ed) 10th International Conference on Permafrost. The Fort Dialog-Iset Publisher, Salekhard, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District. pp 153–154Google Scholar
  13. Goering DJ (2003) Passively cooled railway embankments for use in permafrost areas. J Cold Regions Eng 17:119–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goering DJ, Kumar P (1996) Winter-time convection in open-graded embankments. Cold Reg Sci Technol 24:57–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lai Y, Ma W, Zhang M, Yu W, Gao Z (2006) Experimental investigation on influence of boundary conditions on cooling effect and mechanism of crushed-rock layers. Cold Reg Sci Technol 45:114–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lepage J, Dore G (2010) Experimentation of mitigation techniques to reduce the effects of permafrost degradation on transportation infrastructures at Beaver Creek experimental road side (Alaska Highway, Yukon). In: Proceedings 63rd Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Calgary, Alberta, pp 526–533Google Scholar
  17. Ma W, Cheng G, Wu Q (2009) Construction on permafrost foundations: lessons learned from the Qingha–Tibet Railroad. Cold Regions Sci Technol 59(1):3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. M-Lepage J, Doré G, Fortier D, Murchison P (2012) Thermal performance of the permafrost protection techniques at beaver creek experimental road site, Yukon, Canada. In: Hinkel KM (ed) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Permafrost. The Northern Publisher, Salekhard, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District, Russia. pp 261–266Google Scholar
  19. Mu Y, Ma W, Liu Y, Sun Z (2010) Monitoring investigation on thermal stability of air-convection crushed-rock embankment. Cold Reg Sci Technol 62:160–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nield D, Bean A (1992) Convection in porous media. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Qin Y (2015) A review on the development of cool pavements to mitigate urban heat island effect. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 52:445–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Qin Y, Zhang J (2013) A review on the cooling effect of duct-ventilated embankments in China. Cold Reg Sci Technol 95:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Qin Y, Liang J, Huang Z, Tan K (2015) Painting the roadway embankment with non-white high reflective pigments to raise the albedo. Environ Earth Sci. (In press) Google Scholar
  24. Qin Y, Liang J, Luo Z, Tan K, Zhu Z (2016) Increasing the southern side-slope albedo remedies thermal asymmetry of cold-region roadway embankments. Cold Reg Sci Technol 123:115–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Reckard MK (1985) White paint for highway thaw settlement control. FHWA-AK-RD-85-16. Report (Alaska. Department of Transportation and Public Facilities), Juneau, p. 75Google Scholar
  26. Wu Q, Lu Z, Tingjun Z, Ma W, Liu Y (2008) Analysis of cooling effect of crushed rock-based embankment of the Qinghai-Xizang railway. Cold Reg Sci Technol 53:271–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yu W, Lai Y, Zhang X, Zhang S, Xiao J (2004) Laboratory investigation on cooling effect of coarse rock layer and fine rock layer in permafrost regions. Cold Reg Sci Technol 38:31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang M, Lai Y, Gao Z, Yu W (2006) Influence of boundary conditions on the cooling effect of crushed-rock embankment in permafrost regions of Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Cold Reg Sci Technol 44:225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhang M, Lai Y, Yu W, Huang Z (2007) Experimental study on influence of particle size on cooling effect of crushed-rock layer under closed and open tops. Cold Regions Sci Technol 48:232–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yinghong Qin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kanghao Tan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jia Liang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yunfeng Li
    • 1
  • Fanghua Li
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureGuangxi UniversityNanningChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Disaster Prevention and Structural Safety of China Ministry of EducationGuangxi UniversityNanningChina
  3. 3.The Science and Technology DivisionGuangxi UniversityNanningChina

Personalised recommendations