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Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes and identification of hydrogeochemical mechanisms evolution in Northeastern, Tunisia

  • Faten Houatmia
  • Rim Azouzi
  • Abdelkrim Charef
  • Mourad Bédir
Original Article

Abstract

Oligocene and Mio-Plio-Quaternary siliciclastic deposits constitute the most important deep aquifers of the Kairouanai-Sahel region. Considering the over-exploitation and contamination of the surface groundwater, recourse to use deep groundwater was crucial. These aquifers revealed three major hydrochemical facies: HCO3/Mg, HCO3/Na and SO4/Mg water types. Rock–water interaction showed the main mechanisms are rock weathering and evaporation. Different parameters such as water quality index (WQI), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), percentage of sodium, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium hazard (MH) and permeability index (PI) were used to evaluate groundwater suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. Results highlighted that groundwater is unsafe for irrigation based on PI, MH, RSC and salinity diagram. According to the WQI values, 10.25 % of the water samples had good water quality, 69.23 % were considered as poor water, 12.82 % were very poor water and 7.69 % were considered unsuitable for drinking purpose.

Keywords

Physico-chemical analysis Hydrogeochemistry Drinking and irrigation quality Sisseb El Alem aquifers 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is a part of the results of the research Project—2002–2014—of “Deep Aquifers in Eastern Tunisia Sahel regions” of the Georesource Laboratory in the Centre of Water Researches and Technology of the Borj Cédia Technopark in collaboration with the “Direction Générale des Ressources en Eaux” of the Agriculture Ministry and financed by the Ministry of Higher education and scientific research of Tunisia.

We would like to express our gratitude and thanks to the technicians and engineers staff of Kairouan and Sidi Bouzid water resources regional departments, and also to the researchers and staff members of Georesource and waste water treatment laboratories, for their help and assistance, during the field survey and laboratory analysis.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Faten Houatmia
    • 1
  • Rim Azouzi
    • 1
  • Abdelkrim Charef
    • 1
  • Mourad Bédir
    • 1
  1. 1.Georesources LaboratoryCERTE-University ElmanarSolimanTunisia

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