Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, 75:319 | Cite as

Urban flood hazard assessment in the basin of Athens Metropolitan city, Greece

  • G. D. BathrellosEmail author
  • E. Karymbalis
  • H. D. Skilodimou
  • K. Gaki-Papanastassiou
  • E. A. Baltas
Original Article

Abstract

Flood events have often occurred in the metropolitan urban area of Athens, capital of Greece, causing loss of property and in many cases human lives. In this study a flood hazard assessment model for urban areas is examined. The Kifisos and Ilisos Rivers flowing through the plain of Athens was the case study of the present work. The quantitative analysis of the Kifisos and Ilisos Rivers drainage networks was performed to identify flash-flood prone areas. The major factors affecting urban floods were estimated. The slope angle, elevation, distance from open channel streams, distance from totally covered streams, hydro-lithology and land cover of the study area were used. to evaluate these factors the analytical hierarchical process method was applied in a geographical information system. A sensitivity analysis was made to assess the effect of the various factors on the flood hazard map. Three scenarios were developed to examine the effect of uncertainty of the factors’ values to the flood hazard assessment results, leading to the corresponding urban flood hazard assessment maps. The produced map showed that the areas of very high flood hazard are located mostly along the lower reaches of Kifisos and Ilisos Rivers, particularly to the southern and to the western part of the study area. These areas are characterized by lowland morphology, gentle slope, totally covered streams, expansion of impermeable formation and intense urbanization. The uncertainty analysis shows no significant differences on the spatial distribution of the hazard zones. The produced urban flood hazard map proves a satisfactory agreement between the flood hazard zones and the spatial distribution of flood phenomena that have affected the study area in the past 117 years. Furthermore, the comparison between the flood-prone areas that were derived from the geomorphological analysis of the drainage networks and the high flood-hazard zones of the final map indicated reliable results and a high accuracy of the proposed methodology.

Keywords

Multi-criteria analysis Uncertainty analysis GIS Kifisos and Ilisos Rivers Morphometry 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The constructive and thorough reviews of two anonymous reviewers are warmly acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest.

References

  1. Angillieri MYE (2008) Morphometric analysis of Colangüil river basin and flash flood hazard, San Juan, Argentina. Environ Geol 55(1):107–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antoniou B (2002) Natural and human environment of Athens basin. In: Proceedings of 6th Pan-Hellenic Geographical Conference of the Hellenic Geographical Society,vol II, pp 311–318Google Scholar
  3. Ayalew L, Yamagishi H, Ugawa N (2004) Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS-based weighted linear combination, the case in Tsugawa area of Agano River, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Landslides 1(1):73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baltas EA, Mimikou MA (2002) Considerations for the optimum location of a C-band weather radar in the Athens area. Proc ERAD 2002:348–351Google Scholar
  5. Bathrellos GD, Skilodimou HD, Kelepertsis A, Alexakis D, Chrisanthaki I, Archonti D (2008) Environmental research of groundwater in the urban and suburban areas of Attica region, Greece. Environ Geol 56(1):11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bathrellos GD, Gaki-Papanastassiou K, Skilodimou HD, Papanastassiou D, Chousianitis KG (2012) Potential suitability for urban planning and industry development by using natural hazard maps and geological—geomorphological parameters. Environ Earth Sci 66(2):537–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bathrellos GD, Gaki-Papanastassiou K, Skilodimou HD, Skianis GA, Chousianitis KG (2013) Assessment of rural community and agricultural development using geomorphological–geological factors and GIS in the Trikala prefecture (Central Greece). Stoch Environ Res Risk A 27(2):573–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benke KK, Pelizaro C, Lowell KE (2009) Uncertainty in multi-criteria evaluation techniques when used for land suitability analysis. In: Cao W, White JW, Wang E (eds) Crop modeling and decision support. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  9. Bossard M, Feranec J, Otahel J (2000) CORINE land cover technical guide—Addendum 2000. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, p 104Google Scholar
  10. Büchele B, Kreibich H, Kron A, Thieken A, Ihringer J, Oberle P, Merz B, Nestmann F (2006) Flood-risk mapping: contributions towards an enhanced assessment of extreme events and associated risks. Nat Hazard Earth Syst 6:485–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burrough P, McDonnell RA (1998) Principles of geographical information systems. Oxford University Press, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. CEOS (2003) The use of earth observing satellites for hazard support: assessments and scenarios. Final report of the CEOS Disaster Management Support Group (DMSG)Google Scholar
  13. Costa JE (1987) Hydraulics and basin morphometry of the largest flash floods in the conterminous United States. J Hydrol 93:313–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Diakakis M (2013) An inventory of flood events in Athens, Greece, during the last 130 years. Seasonality and spatial distribution. J Flood Risk Manag 7:332–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Diakakis M, Mavroulis S, Deligiannakis G (2012) Floods in Greece, a statistical and spatial approach. Nat Hazards 62(2):485–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fernández DS, Lutz MA (2010) Urban flood hazard zoning in Tucumán Province, Argentina, using GIS and multicriteria decision analysis. Eng Geol 111(1–4):90–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. IGME (Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration) (1983) Geological map of Greece, scale 1:500,000Google Scholar
  18. Kallioras A, Marinos P (2015) Water resources assessment and management of karst aquifer systems in Greece. Environ Earth Sci 74:83–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kamberis E, Bathrellos GD, Kokinou E, Skilodimou HD (2012) Correlation between the structural pattern and the development of the hydrographic network in the area of Western Thessaly basin (Greece). Open Geosci 4(3):416–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Karali M, Vaiou N, Mimikou M, Tsakiris G, Chatzibiros K, Polyzos G (1996) Alternative intervention practices in the streams. Interdisciplinary Research Project of National Technical University of Athens (N.T.U.A.), Athens (in Greek)Google Scholar
  21. Karymbalis E, Katsafados P, Chalkias C, Gaki-Papanastassiou K (2012) An integrated study for the evaluation of natural and anthropogenic causes of flooding in small catchments based on geomorphological and meteorological data and modeling techniques: the case of the Xerias torrent (Corinth, Greece). Z Geomorphol 56(1):45–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kokinou E, Skilodimou HD, Bathrellos GD, Antonarakou A, Kamberis E (2015) Morphotectonic analysis, structural evolution/pattern of a contractional ridge: Giouchtas Mt., Central Crete, Greece. J Earth Syst Sci 124(3):587–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lepsius R (1893) Geologie von Attica. Ein Beitrag zur Lehre vom Metamorphismus der Gesteine, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  24. Maroukian Χ, Τsermegas Ε, Gaki-Papanastassiou Κ, Karymbalis Ε (2005) The role of morphometric parameters and human interference in floods at the lower reaches of Kifisos River delta (Attica). In: Proceedings of the 7th Panhellenic congress on hydrogeology, vol Ι, pp 289–299 (in Greek with English abstract)Google Scholar
  25. Mesa LM (2006) Morphometric analysis of a subtropical Andean basin (Tucuman, Argentina). Environ Geol 50:1235–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Migiros G, Bathrellos GD, Skilodimou HD, Karamousalis T (2011) Pinios (Peneus) River (Central Greece): hydrological—geomorphological elements and changes during the quaternary. Open Geosci 3(2):215–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mimikou M, Koutsoyiannis D (1995) Extreme floods in Greece: the case of 1994. US–Italy research workshop on the hydrometeorology, impacts and management of extreme floods. Perugia, Italy, 13–17 November 1995Google Scholar
  28. Mimikou M, Baltas E, Varanou E (2000) A study of extreme storm events in the Athens greater area. The extreme of extremes, July 17–19, 2000, Reykjavik, IcelandGoogle Scholar
  29. Mimikou M, Baltas E, Varanou E (2002) A study of extreme storm events in the Greater Athens area, Greece.The extremes of the extremes, extraordinary floods. IAHS-AISH Publication, vol 271, pp 161–166Google Scholar
  30. Moussa R (2003) On morphometric properties of basin, scale effects and hydrological response. Hydrol Process 17(1):33–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Niedermayer J (1971) Geological map and underground map of Athens, scale 1:10000. Technical Chamber of Greece and Greek Geological SocietyGoogle Scholar
  32. Nunes Correia F, Da Graca Saraiva M, Nunes Da Silva F, Ramos I (1999) Floodplain management in urban developing areas Part I Urban growth scenarios and land-use controls. Water Res Manag 13(1):1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ologunorisa TE, Abawua MJ (2005) Flood risk assessment: a review. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 9(1):57–63Google Scholar
  34. Ozdemir H, Bird D (2009) Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods. Environ Geol 56(7):1405–1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Panagiotopoulos I, Kapsimalis V, Hatzianestis I, Kanellopoulos T, Kyriakidou C (2010) Environmental status of the metropolitan river (Kifisos) of Athens, Greece. Environ Earth Sci 61(5):983–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Panagopoulos GP, Bathrellos GD, Skilodimou HD, Martsouka FA (2012) Mapping urban water demands using multi-criteria analysis and GIS. Water Res Manag 26(5):1347–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Papadopoulou-Vrynioti K, Bathrellos GD, Skilodimou HD, Kaviris G, Makropoulos K (2013a) Karst collapse susceptibility mapping considering peak ground acceleration in a rapidly growing urban area. Eng Geol 158:77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Papadopoulou-Vrynioti K, Alexakis D, Bathrellos GD, Skilodimou HD, Vryniotis D, Vasiliades E, Gamvroula D (2013b) Distribution of trace elements in stream sediments of Arta plain (western Hellas): the influence of geomorphological parameters. J Geochem Explor 134:17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Papadopoulou-Vrynioti K, Alexakis D, Bathrellos GD, Skilodimou HD, Vryniotis D, Vasiliades E (2014) Environmental research and evaluation of agricultural soil of the Arta plain, western Hellas. J Geochem Explor 136:84–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Papagiannaki K, Lagouvardos K, Kotroni V, Bezes A (2015) Flash flood occurrence and relation to the rainfall hazard in a highly urbanized area. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 15:1859–1871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Patton PC, Baker VR (1976) Morphometry and floods in small drainage basins subject to diverse hydrogeomorphic controls. Water Resour Res 12(5):941–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pradhan B, Lee S (2010) Delineation of landslide hazard areas on Penang Island, Malaysia, by using frequency ratio, logistic regression, and artificial neural network models. Environ Earth Sci 60(5):1037–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Quintero F, Sempere-Torres D, Berenguer M, Baltas E (2012) A scenario-incorporating analysis of the propagation of uncertainty to flash flood simulations. J Hydrol 460–461:90–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rozos D, Bathrellos GD, Skilodimou HD (2011) Comparison of the implementation of Rock Engineering System (RES) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) methods, based on landslide susceptibility maps, compiled in GIS environment. A case study from the Eastern Achaia County of Peloponnesus, Greece. Environ. Earth Sci 63(1):49–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rozos D, Skilodimou HD, Loupasakis C, Bathrellos GD (2013) Application of the revised universal soil loss equation model on landslide prevention. An example from N. Euboea (Evia) Island, Greece. Environ Earth Sci 70(7):3255–3266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Saaty TL (1977) A scaling method for priorities in hierarchical structures. J Math Psychol 15(3):234–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Saaty TL (2004) Decision making—the analytic hierarchy and network processes (AHP/ANP). J Syst Sci Syst Eng 13(1):1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Salvati P, Bianchi C, Rossi M, Guzzetti F (2010) Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10(3):465–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Skilodimou H, Livaditis G, Bathrellos G, Verikiou-Papaspiridakou E (2003) Investigating the flooding events of the urban regions of Glyfada and Voula, Attica, Greece: a contribution to Urban Geomorphology. Geogr Ann A 85(2):197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Skilodimou HD, Bathrellos GD, Maroukian H, Gaki- Papanastassiou K (2014) Late Quaternary evolution of the lower reaches of Ziliana stream in south Mt. Olympus (Greece). Geogr Fis Dinam Quat 37(1):43–50. doi: 10.4461/GFDQ.2014.37.5 Google Scholar
  51. Stamatis G, Lambrakis N, Alexakis D, Zagana V (2006) Groundwater quality in Mesogea basin in eastern Attica (Greece). Hydrol Process 20:2803–2818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Strahler A (1957) Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology. EOS Trans AGU 38(6):913–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tehrany MS, Lee MJ, Pradhan B, Jebur MN, Lee S (2014a) Flood susceptibility mapping using integrated bivariate and multivariate statistical models. Environ Earth Sci 72(10):4001–4015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tehrany MS, Pradhan B, Jebur MN (2014b) Flood susceptibility mapping using a novel ensemble weights-of-evidence and support vector machine models in GIS. J Hydrol 512:332–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Thapa RB, Murayama Y (2008) Land evaluation for peri-urban agriculture using analytical hierarchical process and geographic information system techniques: a case study of Hanoi. Land Use Policy 25(2):225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Youssef AM, Pradhan B, Hassan AM (2011a) Flash flood risk estimation along the St. Katherine road, southern Sinai, Egypt using GIS based morphometry and satellite imagery. Environ. Earth Sci 62(3):611–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Youssef AM, Pradhan B, Tarabees E (2011b) Integrated evaluation of urban development suitability based on remote sensing and GIS techniques: contribution from the analytic hierarchy process. Arab J Geosci 4(3–4):463–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Youssef AM, Pradhan B, Al-Kathery M, Bathrellos GD, Skilodimou HD (2015) Assessment of rockfall hazard at Al-Noor Mountain, Makkah city (Saudi Arabia) using spatio-temporal remote sensing data and field investigation. J Afr Earth Sci 101:309–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. D. Bathrellos
    • 1
  • E. Karymbalis
    • 2
  • H. D. Skilodimou
    • 1
  • K. Gaki-Papanastassiou
    • 1
  • E. A. Baltas
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Geography and Climatology, Faculty of Geology and GeoenvironmentNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of GeographyHarokopio University of AthensAthensGreece
  3. 3.Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations