Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 74, Issue 6, pp 5097–5110 | Cite as

Distribution, enrichment and sources of heavy metals in surface sediments of Hainan Island rivers, China

Original Article

Abstract

Heavy metal concentrations in 36 samples of surface sediments from Hainan Island rivers were determined to evaluate the level of contamination in the region. Heavy metal concentrations (mg/kg) of Hainan Island rivers were in the range of 0.01–0.58 mg/kg for Hg, 0.09–0.70 mg/kg for Cd, 1.80–36.87 mg/kg for As, 15.33–69.32 mg/kg for Pb, 4.46–150.89 mg/kg for Cu, 6.64–104.95 mg/kg for Cr and 22.11–199.11 mg/kg for Zn. Contamination indices including contamination factor, enrichment factor, and geoaccumulation index, and multivariate statistical analyses indicated that Wenlan River was relatively at a considerable pollution level; Nandu, Changhua, Lingshui, Wanquan and Zhubi rivers were at a low-to-moderate pollution level; Beimen and Ningyuan rivers were at a level of relatively low pollution. Principal component analysis indicated that Cd, Pb, Cr and Zn were predominantly sourced from anthropogenic sources; whereas, Cu, As and Hg were from lithogenic sources. This study would be helpful for sustainable land use and marine management in the region.

Keywords

Heavy metals Hainan Island rivers Surface sediment Contamination indices Multivariate statistical analyses Sources 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Dongfeng Jiao and Mr. Chen for assistance in field work and Xingyan Shen and Xuebo Yin for technical help in laboratory. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41076033), Chinese Continental Shelf Deep Drilling Program (GZH201100202) and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA11030104).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Debo Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shiming Wan
    • 1
  • Zhaojie Yu
    • 3
  • Jie Huang
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of OceanologyChinese Academy of SciencesQingdaoChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Laboratoire IDES, UMR 8148 CNRSUniversité de Paris XIOrsayFrance

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