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Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 74, Issue 3, pp 2523–2530 | Cite as

Runoff and sediment yield under simulated rainfall on sand-covered slopes in a region subject to wind–water erosion

  • Guoce Xu
  • Shanshan Tang
  • Kexin Lu
  • Peng LiEmail author
  • Zhanbin Li
  • Haidong Gao
  • Binhua Zhao
Original Article

Abstract

Wind–water compound erosion is a complex process that affects 260,000 km2 in China. Understanding the effects of wind erosion deposition on water erosion is essential to soil and water conservation and ecological construction. In this study, runoff and sediment yield on sand-covered slopes (SS) and bare loess slope (LS) were studied under simulated rainfall experiments. The results showed that runoff in response to 1.0 and 1.5 mm/min rainfall intensities on SS began 31.1 min and 17.5 min later than on LS, respectively, and that runoff start-time increased as the sand-covering thickness increased. The impact of rainfall intensity on the runoff process of SS was greater than that of LS. Sand-covering had a greater effect on increasing sediment yield than runoff amount. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the runoff amount and sediment yields of the three sand-covering thicknesses (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm) of SS were all significantly larger than those of LS under 1.5 mm/min rainfall (p < 0.01). However, the runoff and sediment did not increase strictly with increasing sand-covering thickness. The total sediment yields from SS under 1.0 and 1.5 mm/min rainfall intensities were 23 times and 13 times greater than those from LS, respectively. The relationships between cumulative runoff and sediment yield on LS and SS could be fitted well by linear functions (R 2 > 0.98, p < 0.01). The sediment yields showed strong positive correlations with runoff amount on SS (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the sand-covered slopes greatly increased soil erosion when compared to the loess slope.

Keywords

Sand-covered slope Runoff Sediment yield Rainfall intensity Wind–water compound erosion 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2011CB403302), the State Key Program of National Natural Science of China (No. 41330858), the National Natural Science Foundations of China (No. 41401316, 41471226, 41401305 and 41271290), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2014M562440), and the Natural Science Foundations of Shaanxi Province (No. 2014JQ5175). In addition, we thank the reviewers for their useful comments and suggestions.

Supplementary material

12665_2015_4266_MOESM1_ESM.xls (25 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 25 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guoce Xu
    • 1
  • Shanshan Tang
    • 1
  • Kexin Lu
    • 1
  • Peng Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Zhanbin Li
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Haidong Gao
    • 1
  • Binhua Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-Hydraulic Engineering in Arid AreaXi’an University of TechnologyXi’ anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dry-land Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water ConservationChinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water ResourcesYanglingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Graduate School of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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