Runoff and sediment yield under simulated rainfall on sand-covered slopes in a region subject to wind–water erosion
- 310 Downloads
Wind–water compound erosion is a complex process that affects 260,000 km2 in China. Understanding the effects of wind erosion deposition on water erosion is essential to soil and water conservation and ecological construction. In this study, runoff and sediment yield on sand-covered slopes (SS) and bare loess slope (LS) were studied under simulated rainfall experiments. The results showed that runoff in response to 1.0 and 1.5 mm/min rainfall intensities on SS began 31.1 min and 17.5 min later than on LS, respectively, and that runoff start-time increased as the sand-covering thickness increased. The impact of rainfall intensity on the runoff process of SS was greater than that of LS. Sand-covering had a greater effect on increasing sediment yield than runoff amount. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the runoff amount and sediment yields of the three sand-covering thicknesses (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm) of SS were all significantly larger than those of LS under 1.5 mm/min rainfall (p < 0.01). However, the runoff and sediment did not increase strictly with increasing sand-covering thickness. The total sediment yields from SS under 1.0 and 1.5 mm/min rainfall intensities were 23 times and 13 times greater than those from LS, respectively. The relationships between cumulative runoff and sediment yield on LS and SS could be fitted well by linear functions (R 2 > 0.98, p < 0.01). The sediment yields showed strong positive correlations with runoff amount on SS (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the sand-covered slopes greatly increased soil erosion when compared to the loess slope.
KeywordsSand-covered slope Runoff Sediment yield Rainfall intensity Wind–water compound erosion
This research was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2011CB403302), the State Key Program of National Natural Science of China (No. 41330858), the National Natural Science Foundations of China (No. 41401316, 41471226, 41401305 and 41271290), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2014M562440), and the Natural Science Foundations of Shaanxi Province (No. 2014JQ5175). In addition, we thank the reviewers for their useful comments and suggestions.
- Jiao JR (2003) The achievements of remote sensing on soil and water loss and the strategy of soil and water conservation and ecology construction. Soil Water Conserv China 7:7–8 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Kocurek G (1998) Aeolian system response to external forcing factor, a sequence stratigraphic view of the Saharan region. In: Alsharhan AA, Glennie KW, Whittle GL (eds) Quaternary deserts and climatic change. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 327–337Google Scholar
- McTainsh GH, Leys JF, Nickling WG (1999) Wind erodibility of arid lands in the Channel Country of Western Queensland, Australia. Zeitschrift fuer Geomorphologie, Supplementbaende 116:113–130Google Scholar
- Skidmore EL (1986) Soil erosion by wind. In: El-Baz F, Hassan MHA (eds) Physics of desertification. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 263–271Google Scholar
- Song Y, Liu LY, Yan P (2006) A review on complex erosion by wind and water research. Acta Geographica Sinica 1:77–88 (in Chinese)Google Scholar