Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 74, Issue 2, pp 1099–1108 | Cite as

Fractionation of heavy metals and evaluation of the environmental risk for the alkaline soils of the Thriassio plain: a residential, agricultural, and industrial area in Greece

  • Dionisios Gasparatos
  • Georgia Mavromati
  • Panagiotis Kotsovilis
  • Ioannis Massas
Original Article

Abstract

The purpose of the present study is to test metals’ accumulation and behavior in surface soils of Thriassio plain, Attica, an area registered as probably the most polluted in Greece. Avoiding sampling close to obvious specific pollution sources, 50 surface soil samples were collected and the Tessier fractionation scheme was applied to determine the chemical partitioning of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr. Five chemical fractions of the studied metals were defined: exchangeable (F1), acid-soluble (F2), reducible (F3), oxidizable (F4) and residual (F5). The highest Cu, Ni and Cr concentrations were measured in the residual fraction, while the highest Zn and Pb concentrations were found in the reducible fraction. However, F3 Cr and Ni concentrations were also high. These increased amounts of Zn and Pb and to a lesser extent those of Cr and Ni found in the reducible fraction indicate a potential hazard of metals’ mobilization under flooding and anaerobic conditions due to excess irrigation or rain water. Concentration of Pb in F1 was high suggesting recent pollution episodes. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the exchangeable fraction of Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni is strongly related to the soil clay content and the oxidizable fraction of Cr and Ni to organic matter content. According to PCA results, no other clear relation between the extracted metal fractions and the soil components (i.e. CaCO3 eq., organic matter, clay and amorphous iron oxides) was observed. The weak relation of CaCO3 eq., content with many metal fractions suggests that carbonates affect the chemical partitioning of metals in alkaline soils with high CaCO3 eq., content. The high values of mobility factor for Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn point to a considerable risk since these metals may accumulate in soil biota and plants.

Keywords

Soil Heavy metals Sequential extraction Mobility factor Principal component analysis 

References

  1. Ajmone-Marsan F, Biasioli M (2010) Trace elements in soils of urban areas. Water Air Soil Pollut 213:121–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Argyraki A, Kelepertzis E (2014) Urban soil geochemistry in Athens, Greece: the importance of local geology in controlling the distribution of potentially harmful trace elements. Sci Total Environ 482–483:366–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borch T, Kretzschmar R, Kappler A, Van Cappellen P, Ginder-Vogel M, Voegelin A, Campbell K (2010) Biogeochemical redox processes and their impact on contaminant dynamics. Environ Sci Technol 44:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bouyoucos GH (1951) A recalibration of the hydrometer method for making mechanical analysis of soils. Agron J 43:434–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Businelli M, Casciari F, Businelli D, Gigliotti G (2003) Mechanisms of Pb(II) sorption and desorption at some clays and goethite–water interfaces. Agronomie 23:219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dousis P, Anastopoulos I, Gasparatos D, Ehaliotis C, Massas I (2013) Effect of time and glucose-C on the fractionation of Zn and Cu in a slightly acid soil. Commun Soil Sci Plan 44:722–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Facchinelli A, Sacchi E, Mallen L (2001) Multivariate statistical and GIS-based approach to identify heavy metal sources in soils. Environ Pollut 114:313–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gasparatos D (2013) Sequestration of heavy metals from soil with Fe–Mn concretions and nodules. Environ Chem Lett 11:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gasparatos D, Haidouti C (2001) A comparison of wet oxidation methods for determination of total phosphorus in soils. J Plant Nutr and Soil Sci 164:435–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gleyzes C, Tellier S, Astruc M (2002) Fractionation studies of trace elements in contaminated soils and sediments: a review of sequential extraction procedures. Trend Anal Chem 21:451–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Iwegbue CMA (2007) Metal fractionation in soil profiles at automobiles mechanic waste dumps. Waste Manage Res 25:585–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Iwegbue CMA (2013) Chemical fractionation and mobility of heavy metals in soils in the vicinity of Asphalt plants in Delta State, Nigeria. Environ Forensics 14:248–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Iwegbue CMA, Ewhrudje MO, Nwajei GE, Egboh SHO (2007) Chemical speciation of heavy metals in sediments of Ase River, Nigeria. Chem Spec Bioavailab 9:119–129Google Scholar
  14. Jiang M, Zeng G, Zhang C, Ma X, Chen M, Zhang J, Lu L, Yu Q, Hu L, Liu L (2013) Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the surrounding soils and surface sediments in Xiawangang River, Qingshuitang District. PLoS ONE 8:1–11Google Scholar
  15. Kabala C, Singh BR (2001) Fractionation and mobility of copper, lead and zinc in soil profile in the vicinity of a copper smelter. J Environ Qual 3:485–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lei M, Zhang Y, Khan S, Qin PF, Liao BH (2010) Pollution, fractionation, and mobility of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in garden and paddy soils from a Pb/Zn mining area. Environ Monit Assess 168:215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lindsay WL, Norvell WA (1978) Development of DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42:421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lu Y, Gong ZT, Zhang GL, Burghardt W (2003) Concentrations and chemical speciations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr of urban soils in Nanjing, China. Geoderma 115:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Luo XS, Yu S, Li XD (2012) The mobility, bioavailability, and human bioaccessibility of trace metals in urban soils of Hong Kong. Appl Geochem 27:995–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lykoudis S, Psounis N, Mavrakis A, Christides A (2008) Predicting photochemical pollution in an industrial area. Environ Monit Assess 142:279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Massas I, Ehaliotis C, Kalivas D, Panagopoulou G (2010) Concentrations and availability indicators of soil heavy metals; the case of children’s playgrounds in the city of Athens (Greece). Water Air Soil Pollut 212:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Massas I, Kalivas D, Ehaliotis C, Gasparatos D (2013) Total and available heavy metal concentrations in soils of the Thriassio plain (Greece) and assessment of soil pollution indexes. Environ Monit Assess 185:6751–6766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mavrakis A, Theoharatos G, Makrigiannis G (2005) Temporal evolution of SO2 concentrations and fuel types for the Thriassio Plain, Greece. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Exergy, Energy and Environment Symposium (IEEES2), Kos-Greece, 3–7 July, 2005Google Scholar
  24. Mavrakis A, Lykoudis S, Christides A, Dasaklis S, Tasopoulos A, Theoharatos G, Kyvelou S, Verouti E (2008) Air quality levels in a closed industrialized basin (Thriassion Plain, Greece). Fresen Environ Bull 17:443–454Google Scholar
  25. Moral R, Gilkes RJ, Jordan MM (2005) Distribution of heavy metals in calcareous and non-calcareous soils in Spain. Water Air Soil Pollut 162:127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1982) Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: chemical and microbiological properties. ASA, SSSA, Madison, WI, USAGoogle Scholar
  27. Niesiobędzka K (2012) Transfer of copper, lead and zinc in soil–grass ecosystem in aspect of soils properties, in Poland. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 8:627–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Papafilippaki A, Gasparatos D, Haidouti C, Stavroulakis G (2007) Total and bioavailable forms of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr in agricultural soils: a study from the hydrological basin of Keritis, Chania, Greece. Global Nest J 9:201–206Google Scholar
  29. Ryan PC, Wall AJ, Hillier S, Clark L (2002) Insight to sequential chemical extraction procedure from quantitative XRD: a study of trace metal partitioning in sediments related to frog malformities. Chem Geol 184:337–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sauvé S, Martinez CE, McBride M, Hendershot W (2000) Adsorption of free lead (Pb2+) by pedogenic oxides, ferrihydrite and leaf compost. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:595–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Scheinost AC, Abend S, Pandya KI, Sparks DL (2001) Kinetic control of Cu and Pb sorption by ferrihydrite. Environ Sci Technol 35:1090–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tessier A, Campbell PGC, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51:844–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang XS (2014) Metal geochemical and mineral magnetic characterization of the <2.5 lm fraction of urban soils in Xuzhou (China). Environ Earth Sci 71:3491–3501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yu KC, Tsai LJ, Chen SH, Ho ST (2001) Correlation analyses binding behavior of heavy metals with sediment matrices. Water Res 35:2417–2428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zimmerman AJ, Weindorf DC (2010) Heavy metal and trace metal analysis in soil by sequential extraction. Int J Anal Chem. doi: 10.1155/2010/387803 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dionisios Gasparatos
    • 1
  • Georgia Mavromati
    • 2
  • Panagiotis Kotsovilis
    • 2
  • Ioannis Massas
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Hydraulics, Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, Soil Science Laboratory, School of AgricultureAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Department of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering, Laboratory of Soils and Agricultural ChemistryAgricultural University of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations