Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 73, Issue 3, pp 1295–1302 | Cite as

Groundwater–surface water interactions of Ciliwung River streams, segment Bogor–Jakarta, Indonesia

  • D. E. Irawan
  • H. Silaen
  • P. Sumintadireja
  • R. F. Lubis
  • B. Brahmantyo
  • D. J. Puradimaja
Original Article


CiliwungRiver water quality and its vicinity have been continuously degraded with the increasing population. The objective of this research is to understand the association between river and groundwater, and the water quality profile. Field measurements ware taken from 65 stations from Bogor to Jakarta. Water level, temperature, pH, and TDS were measured to build the water flow map and hydrochemical profile. Small-scale geoelectrical survey was conducted at five locations to capture the aquifer’s geometry. We identified three types of stream relationships between river and groundwater: effluent from Bogor to Katulampa (Segment 1), perched at the University of Indonesia (UI) area (Segment 2), and influent from UI to Muara (Segment 3), with low gradient from <0.1 to 0.3. The temperature profile of river and groundwater shows similar pattern as well as TDS profile. All similarities support close connection of river and groundwater. The increasing TDS towards downstream shows increasing enrichment and contamination. The erratic pattern of pH indicates chemical instability due to high contamination. This study highlights the benefit of understanding the hydrodynamic relationship between river water and groundwater. Such interaction triggers water quality exchange between both water bodies. Therefore, a similar study should also be done on other riverbanks in Indonesia to protect water quality.


River–groundwater interaction Hydrodynamic Hydrochemistry Ciliwung River 



The Directorate General of Higher Education (DIKTI) with Competitive Grant Scheme Program 2006 financially supported the initiation of this work to 2007. The authors also would like to thank the undergraduate and graduate students, who have given their time and energy in the fieldwork. The highest appreciation is also awarded to Prof. Sudarto Notosiswoyo and Dr. Lilik Eko Widodo from the Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung for their lesson learnt regarding groundwater flow and hydrochemistry analysis. The authors also would like to thank cut Novianti Rachmi for detailed proofreading, Ahmad Darul and Ken Prabowo for their artwork processing, and also Mark Cuthbert from the University of Birmingham and Thom Bogaard from Tu Delft for their valuable suggestions. We also appreciate the two anonymous reviewers for their strong comments and corrections for increasing the quality of this paper.

Supplementary material

12665_2014_3482_MOESM1_ESM.xls (67 kb)
Summary of field data (see also separated electronic supplement data). (XLS 67 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. E. Irawan
    • 1
  • H. Silaen
    • 1
  • P. Sumintadireja
    • 1
  • R. F. Lubis
    • 2
  • B. Brahmantyo
    • 1
  • D. J. Puradimaja
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied Geology Research Group, Faculty of Earth Sciences and TechnologyInstitut Teknologi BandungBandungIndonesia
  2. 2.Center for GeotechnologyIndonesia Institution of Sciences (LIPI)BandungIndonesia

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