Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 72, Issue 3, pp 849–859 | Cite as

Composition of selected heavy metals in road dust from Kuala Lumpur city centre

  • Nur Mun’im Mohd Han
  • Mohd Talib Latif
  • Murnira Othman
  • Doreena Dominick
  • Noorlin Mohamad
  • Hafizan Juahir
  • Norhayati Mohd Tahir
Original Article

Abstract

This study was carried out in order to determine the concentration of heavy metals, e.g., lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) in road dust in Kuala Lumpur’s city centre. Samples were collected from four sampling locations, each of which had four sampling points and three replications. Heavy metals from different fractions of particles separated by different diameter sizes: d < 63 μm (Fraction A), 63 < d < 125 μm (Fraction B) and 125 < d < 250 μm (Fraction C) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results from this study showed that concentration of heavy metals was dominated by the smallest particle size: <63 μm and that Fe was the most abundant heavy metal overall, followed by Cu > Mn > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd. The fact that Cd had the highest enrichment factor value (EF) for all particle sizes indicates that anthropogenic activities contributed to the presence of this metal. There was also a higher EF value for heavy metals in small particle (Fraction A), compared to Fraction B and C, which suggests that fine particles were being produced through anthropogenic activities. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis demonstrated the likelihood of the heavy metals detected in the road dust, originating from road traffic and industrial activities.

Keywords

Heavy metals Road dust Particle size City centre PCA 

References

  1. Abdullah AM, Abu Samah MA, Jun TY (2012) An overview of the air pollution trend in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Open Environ Sci 6:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acosta JA, Cano AF, Anocena JM, Debela F, Martinez SM (2009) Distribution of metals in soil particle size fractions and its implication to risk assessment of playgrounds in Murcia City (Spain). Geoderma 149:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adachia K, Tainoshob Y (2004) Characterization of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust. Environ Intern 30:1009–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Addo MA, Darko EO, Gordon C, Nyarko BJB, Gbadago JK (2012) Heavy metals concentrations in road deposited dust at Ketu-South district, Ghana. Int Sci Technol 2:28–39Google Scholar
  5. Ahmed F, Ishiga H (2006) Trace metal concentrations in street dusts of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Atmos Environ 40:3835–3844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akbar KF, Hale WHG, Headley AD, Athar M (2006) Heavy metal contamination of roadside soils of Northern England. Soil Water Res 1(4):158–163Google Scholar
  7. Akhter MS, Madany IS (1993) Heavy metals in street and house dust in Bahrain. Water Air Soil Pollut 66:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Al-Khashman OA (2004) Heavy metal distribution in dust, street dust and soils from the work place in Karak industrial estate, Jordan. Atmos Environ 38:6803–6812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Al-Khashman OA (2007) Determination of metal accumulation in deposited street dusts in Amman, Jordan. Environ Geochem Health 29:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Al-Khashman OA (2013) Assessment of heavy metals contamination in deposited street dusts in different urbanized areas in the city of Ma’an, Jordan. Environ Earth Sci. doi:10.1007/s12665-013-2310-6 (in press)Google Scholar
  11. Amato F, Pandolfi M, Moreno T, Furger M, Pey J, Alastuey A, Bukowiecki N, Prevot ASH, Baltensperger U, Querol X (2011) Sources and variability of inhalable road dust particles in three European cities. Atmos Environ 45:6777–6787Google Scholar
  12. Apeagyei E, Bank MS, Spengler JD (2011) Distribution of heavy metals in road dust along an urban-rural gradient in Massachusetts. Atmos Environ 45:2310–2323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Arslan H (2001) Heavy metals in street dust in Bursa, Turkey. J Trace Microprobe Techniq 19:439–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. ATSDR (2012) Toxicological profile for cadmium. Agency for toxic substances and disease registry, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  15. Azmi SZ, Latif MT, Ismail AS, Juneng L, Jemain AA (2010) Trend and status of air quality at three different monitoring stations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Air Qual Atmos Health 3:53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Banerjee ADK (2003) Heavy metal levels and solid phase speciation in street dusts of Delhi, India. Environ Pollut 123:95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beckwith PR, Ellis JB, Revitt DM, Oldfield F (1986) Heavy metal and magnetic relationships for urban source sediments. Phys Earth Planet Int 42:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Charlesworth SM, Lees JA (1999) The distribution of heavy metals in deposited urban dust and sediments, Coventry, England. Environ Geochem Health 21:97–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Christoforidis A, Stamatis N (2009) Heavy metal contamination in street dust and roadside soil along the major national road in Kavala’s region, Greece. Geoderma 151:257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Contini D, Belosi F, Gambaro A, Cesari D, Stortini AM, Bove MC (2012) Comparison of PM10 concentrations and metal content in three different sites of the Venice Lagoon: an analysis of possible aerosol sources. J Environ Sci 24(11):1954–1965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duong TTT, Lee B-K (2009) Partitioning and mobility behavior of metals in road dusts from national-scale industrial areas in Korea. Atmos Environ 43:3502–3509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Duong TTT, Lee B-K (2011) Determining concentration level of heavy metal in road dust from busy traffic areas with different characteristics. J Environ Manage 92:554–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elik A (2003) Heavy metal accumulation in street dust samples in Sivas. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal 34:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Faiz A, Weaver CS, Walsh MP (1996) Air pollution from motor vehicles. The World Bank, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Faiz Y, Tufail M, Tayyeb JM, Chaudhry MM, Siddique N (2009) Road dust pollution of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn along Islamabad Expressway, Pakistan. Microchem J 92(2):186–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Han L, Zhuang G, Cheng S, Wang Y, Li J (2007) Characteristics of re-suspended road dust and its impact on the atmospheric environment in Beijing. Atmos Environ 41:7485–7499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jones BJ, Symon C, Tylor PJL, Walsh J, Johnston AE (1991) Evidence for a decline in rural herbage lead levels in the UK. Atmos Environ A-Gen 25:361–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Joshi UM, Vijayaraghavan K, Balasubramanian R (2009) Elemental composition of urban street dusts and their dissolution characteristics in various aqueous media. Chemosphere 77:526–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kabadayi F, Cesur H (2010) Determination of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cd and Mn in road dusts of Samsun City. Environ Monit Assess 168:241–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Karmacharya N, Shakya PR (2012) Heavy metals in bulk and particle size fractions from street dust of Kathmandu as the possible basis for risk assessment. Sci World 10(10):84–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Latif ANM, Saleh IA (2012) Heavy metals contamination in road site dust along major roads and correlation with urbanization activities in Cairo, Egypt. J Am Sci 8(6):379–389Google Scholar
  32. Li X, Poon C, Liu PS (2001) Heavy metal contamination of urban soils and street dusts in Hong Kong. App Geochem 16(11–12):1361–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lu X, Wang L, Lei K, Huang J, Zhai Y (2009) Contamination assessment of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel in street dust of Baoji, NW China. J Hazard Mat 161:1058–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lu X, Wang L, Li LY, Lei K, Huang L, Kang D (2010) Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals in street dust of Baoji NW China. J Hazard Mat 173(1–3):744–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Malaysian Meteorological Department (2011) 2010 Annual report. Petaling JayaGoogle Scholar
  36. Manno E, Varrica D, Dongarrà G (2006) Metal distribution in road dust samples collected in an urban area close to a petrochemical plant at Gela, Sicily. Atmos Environ 40:5929–5941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McKenzie ER, Wong CM, Green PG, Kayhanian M, Young TM (2008) Size dependent elemental composition of road-associated particles. Sci Total Environ 398:145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ministry of Works (2010) Road traffic volume in Malaysia, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  39. Mohamad J, Kiggundu AT (2007) The rise of the private car in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia-assessing the policy options. IATSS Res 31(1):69–77Google Scholar
  40. Oh M-S, Lee T-J, Kim D-S (2011) Quantitative source apportionment of size-segregated particulate matter at urbanized local site in Korea. Aerosol Air Qual Res 11:247–264Google Scholar
  41. Rahman SA, Hamzah MS, Wood AK, Elias MS, Salim NAA, Sanuri E (2011) Source apportionment of fine and coarse mode aerosol in Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur using positive matrix factorization. Atmos Pollut Res 2:197–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rashed MN (2008) Total and extractable heavy metals in indoor, outdoor and street dust from Aswan City, Egypt. Clean 38(10–11):850–857Google Scholar
  43. Sara YY, Rashid M, Chuah TG, Suhaimi M, Mohamed NN (2013) Characteristics of airborne PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 in the urban environment of Kuala Lumpur. Adv Mat Res 620:502–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sezgin N, Ozcan HH, Demir G, Nemlioglu S, Bayat C (2003) Determination of heavy metal concentrations in street dusts in Istanbul E-5 highway. Environ Intern 29(7):979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shi G, Chen Z, Xu S, Zhang J, Wang L, Bi C, Teng J (2008) Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils and roadside dust in Shanghai, China. Environ Pollut 156:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tamrakar CS, Shakya PR (2011) Assessment of heavy metals in street dust in Kathmandu Metropolitan City and their possible impacts on the environment. Pak J Anal Environ Chem 12(1 & 2):31–42Google Scholar
  47. Tanner PA, Ma H-L, Yu PKN (2008) Fingerprinting metals in urban street dust of Beijing, Shanghai, and Hong Kong. Environ Sci Technol 42:7111–7117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Taylor S, McLennan S (1985) The continental crust: its composition and evolution. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  49. Thorpe A, Harrison RM (2008) Sources and properties of non-exhaust particulate matter from road traffic: a review. Sci Total Environ 400(1–3):270–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tokalioğlu Ş, Kartal Ş (2006) Multivariate analysis of the data and speciation of heavy metals in street dust samples from the Organized Industrial District in Kayseri (Turkey). Atmos Environ 40:2797–2805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wahid NBA, Latif MT, Surtaman S (2013) Composition and source apportionment of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols of urban and semi-urban areas in Malaysia. Chemosphere 91:1508–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yongming H, Peixuan D, Junji C, Posmentier ES (2006) Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi’an, Central China. Sci Total Environ 355:176–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zheng N, Liu J, Wang Q, Liang Z (2010) Health risk assessment of heavy metal exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast of China. Sci Total Environ 408(4):726–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nur Mun’im Mohd Han
    • 1
  • Mohd Talib Latif
    • 1
  • Murnira Othman
    • 1
  • Doreena Dominick
    • 2
  • Noorlin Mohamad
    • 1
    • 3
  • Hafizan Juahir
    • 4
  • Norhayati Mohd Tahir
    • 5
  1. 1.Faculty of Science and Technology, School of Environmental and Natural Resource SciencesUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environmental StudiesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Engineering Science, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Malaysia TerengganuKuala TerengganuMalaysia
  4. 4.East Coast Environmental Research Institute (ESERI)Universiti Sultan Zainal AbidinKuala TerengganuMalaysia
  5. 5.Environmental Research Group, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Malaysia TerengganuKuala TerengganuMalaysia

Personalised recommendations