Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 72, Issue 1, pp 171–187 | Cite as

The thermal springs of Jordan

  • Rafael SchäfferEmail author
  • Ingo SassEmail author
Original Article


The thermal springs alongside Wadi Araba, Dead Sea and Jordan valley, Jordan, were investigated and sampled in a comprehensive field study of 2 weeks. Conventional physicochemical properties were measured in situ; dissolved solids and isotopic composition were analyzed. Two main spring locations on the east side of the Dead Sea were mapped. It became evident, that the hottest springs are among the closest to prominent faults; some springs are controlled by gas lift. Jordan’s hot springs are described by means of a broad hydrochemical and physicochemical data set and several figures are presented. Based on their hydrochemistry, the thermal springs are classified into four thermal provinces. Water genesis is discussed. Several geothermometers are applied to estimate reservoir temperatures. Observed discharge rate, water temperature and isotopic composition are compared with data from the literature. Although discharge and water temperature are reported to be constant over the last decades, groundwater overexploitation led to a shift of the isotopic composition, what is documented for the first time in Jordan. Thus, the effect of groundwater mining on Jordan’s hot springs can be stated as a fact.


Thermal springs Hydrochemistry Physicochemical properties Isotopic composition Jordan 



We gratefully thank Prof. Dr. Ahmad Al-Malabeh, Hashemite University Zarqa, Jordan, for the practical support and help conducting the field investigations in Jordan. Dr. Sana’a Al-Zyoud was very helpful in preparing the field campaign and for the very valuable introductions to Jordan authorities. Robert M. Priebs reviewed the English text. We thank three anonymous reviewers for the valuable comments which helped to improve this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Applied Geosciences, Chair of Geothermal Science and TechnologyTechnische Universität DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany

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